Table 1

Maternal, infant, and amniotic fluid characteristics for mother-infant pairs with GDM at >24 weeks vs. those without GDM

CharacteristicsNon-GDMGDMP value
Maternal
    Height (m)1.62 ± 0.0041.60 ± 0.010.0136
    Prepregnancy weight (kg)61.9 ± 0.6267.5 ± 2.90.0231
    BMI (kg/m2)23.4 ± 0.2126.3 ± 1.0<0.0001
        % overweight (BMI 25–30 kg/m2)1936
        % obese (BMI ≥30 kg/m2)721
    Parity1.1 ± 0.051.4 ± 0.140.0699
    Maternal age (years)37.8 ± 0.1338.7 ± 0.320.0155
Infant
    Gestational age at birth (week)39.6 ± 0.0739.0 ± 0.210.0062
    Birth weight (g)3,445 ± 233,581 ± 770.0408
        % AGA88.575.1
        % LGA721
    Birth weight for gestational age (% ranking)51.6 ± 1.464.8 ± 3.70.0008
Amniotic fluid
    Amniocentesis week15.1 ± 0.0515.3 ± 0.160.1324
    Glucose (mmol/l)*3.84 ± 0.125.61 ± 0.47<0.0001
    Insulin (pmol/l)*0.57 ± 0.020.86 ± 0.13<0.0001
    IGFBP1 (μg/ml)*35,602 ± 1,57825,856 ± 3,3080.0246
    Lactic acid (mmol/l)*7.9 ± 0.18.8 ± 0.30.0061
    β-Hydroxybutyric acid (μmol/l)*220 ± 6.7231 ± 210.6968
    Uric acid (μmol/l)*173 ± 4.3204 ± 130.0142
  • Data are reported as means ± SEM. Maternal prepregnancy weight, BMI, gestational week of amniocentesis, and amniotic fluid insulin, glucose, and β-hydroxybutyric acid were either square-root or log transformed to normalize skewness and kurtosis. AGA, appropriate for gestational age; LGA, AGA, large for gestational age.

  • *Covariates for amniotic fluid variables included maternal BMI, smoking, parity, age, ethnicity, and week of amniocentesis. P < 0.05.