Table 1

Characteristics of the study participants by type 2 diabetes and LADA

CharacteristicsNondiabetesType 2 diabetesLADAP value
n (%)7,611 (93.8)452 (5.6)46 (0.6)
Age (years)45.8 ± 15.355.9 ± 10.453.9 ± 7.8<0.001
Female sex3,932 (51.7)275 (60.8)24 (52.2)0.001
Education (≥9 years)2,504 (33.0)130 (28.8)15 (32.6)0.182
Smoking2,770 (36.4)168 (37.3)21 (45.7)0.406
Alcohol drinking*2,076 (28.0)86 (19.5)11 (23.9)<0.001
Hypertension*1,265 (17.1)191 (42.5)16 (34.8)<0.001
Family history of diabetes*181 (2.7)137 (30.4)15 (32.6)<0.001
Major stressful events*237 (3.1)84 (18.8)7 (15.2)<0.001
BMI*24.0 ± 3.426.2 ± 3.525.7 ± 3.4<0.001
    Underweight (<20 kg/m2)788 (10.4)11 ( 2.5)1 ( 2.2)
    Normal (20–24.99 kg/m2)4,094 (53.8)164 (36.7)17 (37.0)
    Overweight (25–29.99 kg/m2)2,361 (31.0)216 (48.3)23 (50.0)
    Obese (≥30 kg/m2)368 ( 4.8)56 (12.5)5 (10.9)<0.001
Waist-to-hip ratio (≥0.85)*3,825 (50.3)347 (78.2)38 (82.6)<0.001
  • Data are n (%) or means ± SD. n = 8,109.

  • *Numbers of subjects with missing values were 195 for alcohol drinking, 162 for hypertension, 803 for family history of diabetes, 43 for major stressful events, 5 for BMI, and 11 for waist-to-hip ratio.