Table 2

Conditional logistic regression model of cardiovascular events

CovariateOdds ratio (95% CI)P
Mean A1C level (%)
    ≤6.01.20* (1.10–1.31)<0.001
    >6.0–8.0Reference
    >8.01.16* (1.09–1.25)<0.001
≥6 A1C tests over prior 3 years0.84 (0.80–0.89)<0.001
A1C range >1.0%1.29 (1.21–1.38)<0.001
Diabetes medications
    Insulin only2.65 (2.31–3.05)<0.001
    Metformin only1.06 (0.92–1.23)0.41
    Sulfonylurea only1.55 (1.36–1.76)<0.001
    Insulin and oral medications2.56 (2.19–3.00)<0.001
    Other oral medications/oral combination1.55 (1.33–1.80)<0.001
    No diabetes medicationsReference
Mean proportion of days covered of diabetes medications0.56 (0.49–0.63)<0.001
Statins0.75 (0.70–0.80)<0.001
ACE inhibitors/ARBs0.80 (0.74–0.86)<0.001
Other antihypertensives/antiplatelets1.34 (1.25–1.43)<0.001
Antipsychotics7.10 (6.24–8.09)<0.001
Antiarrhythmics1.54 (1.30–1.83)<0.001
Tricyclic antidepressant2.91 (2.44–3.46)<0.001
ESAs2.75 (2.46–3.08)<0.001
β-Agonists1.63 (1.52–1.75)<0.001
Prior cardiovascular event3.10 (2.87–3.36)<0.0001
Cardiovascular diagnosis1.41 (1.28–1.56)<0.0001
LDL >100 mg/dl1.14 (1.06–1.22)0.0033
HDL > 40 mg/dl0.67 (0.63–0.71)<0.0001
Retinopathy1.13 (1.07–1.21)<0.0001
Nephropathy1.68 (1.58–1.79)<0.0001
Neuropathy1.19 (1.12–1.26)<0.0001
Prior amputations3.28 (2.52–4.26)<0.0001
Prior severe hypoglycemia1.67 (1.40–1.99)<0.0001
  • *Odds ratio estimated using multivariate analysis controlling for all covariates listed in table. Prior cardiovascular event = hospitalization for MI, stroke, heart failure, arrhythmia in the 3-year preindex period. Cardiovascular diagnosis = hypertension, heart failure, and/or peripheral vascular disease. Prior severe hypoglycemia = emergency-room visit or hospitalization with primary diagnosis of hypoglycemia.