Table 1

Characteristics of the case subjects and control subjects in this study

Case subjectsControl subjects
n2753
Age at onset of islet autoimmunity (months)*12.1 (5–37)12.3 (5–37)
Female sex17 (63)23 (43)
No. of other children in the family (siblings, half-siblings, step siblings)
    None5 (18.5)16 (30.2)
    ≥122 (81.5)37 (69.8)
First-degree relative with diabetes
    None17 (63)50 (94.3)
    Yes, of that10 (37)3 (5.7)
        Sibling only30
        Father only32
        Mother only21
        Multiple family members20
Progression from islet autoimmunity to type 1 diabetes
    Yes10None
Stool samples
    Total6271,417
    Before development of islet autoimmunity*339692
  • Data are median (range), n (%), and n.

  • *For matched control subjects: before the age at which the corresponding case subject seroconverted for islet autoantibodies.