Table 3

Semiquantitative testing of the stool samples: frequency of enterovirus infections with high and low viral load in the children who subsequently developed repeated positivity of multiple autoantibodies vs. matched control subjects who did not develop autoimmunity

Case subjectsControl subjects
Enterovirus RNA-negative296598
Enterovirus RNA-positive, low-moderate quantity*18 (5.3)46 (6.6)
Enterovirus RNA-positive, high quantity*25 (7.4)48 (6.9)
Enterovirus RNA-negative296598
New infection episode, low-moderate quantity*11 (3.4)31 (4.7)
New infection episode, high quantity*19 (5.9)34 (5.1)
  • Data are n or n (%).

  • *Negative, <100 copies/ml enterovirus RNA; low-moderate quantity, 100–9,999 copies/ml enterovirus RNA; high quantity, 310,000 copies/ml enterovirus RNA;

  • †Excluding consecutively positive samples that may have been part of the same infectious episode as in the previous positive sample.