Table 3

Age-standardized and -adjusted outcomes by ethnicity in diabetic women and men aged ≥35 years

OutcomeAge standardized events/1,000 patient yearsHazard ratio (95% CI),*P value
ChineseSouth AsianWhiteChinese vs. whiteSouth Asian vs. white
Women
    n8,4586,672110,142
    Mortality18.620.730.90.69 (0.63–0.74) P < 0.0010.69 (0.62–0.76) P < 0.001
    Stroke4.15.34.70.91 (0.76–1.08) P = 0.261.06 (0.88–1.29) P = 0.54
    AMI1.55.44.50.34 (0.26–0.46) P < 0.0011.19 (0.99–1.44) P = 0.06
    Heart failure2.36.06.30.42 (0.34–0.54) P < 0.010.95 (0.79–1.15) P = 0.6
Men
    n9,2968,394133,875
    Mortality17.820.532.60.61 (0.60–0.66) P < 0.0010.68 (0.63–0.74) P < 0.001
    Stroke4.24.35.10.81 (0.69–0.96) P = 0.010.82 (0.68–0.99) P = 0.04
    AMI2.87.97.90.37 (0.31–0.45) P < 0.0011.05 (0.92–1.19) P = 0.49
    Heart failure2.04.46.40.38 (0.30–0.48) P < 0.010.71 (0.56–0.92) P < 0.01
  • *Hazard ratios are adjusted for age, SES, province, and comorbid conditions including previous history of AMI, heart failure, cerebrovascular disease, peripheral arterial disease, renal impairment, cancer, dementia, chronic pulmonary disease, hypertension, connective tissue disease-rheumatic disease, peptic ulcer disease, mild liver disease, paraplegia and hemiplegia, moderate or severe liver disease, metastatic carcinoma, and AIDS/HIV.