Table 1

Baseline anthropometric, clinical, and laboratory features of study groups

Nonobese insulin-sensitive subjectsObese insulin-sensitive subjectsNonobese insulin-resistant subjectsObese insulin-resistant subjects
Anthropometric parameters
    n (female/male)708 (392/316)43 (31/12)923 (512/411)337 (191/146)
    Age (years)55 ± 11*55 ± 959 ± 11§59 ± 10§
    BMI (kg/m2)23.8 ± 2.8*§32.5 ± 4.325.8 ± 2.3*§33.3 ± 3.4
    Waist circumference (cm)82 ± 9*§94 ± 4*89 ± 10*§104 ± 11§
    Actual smoking201 (28%)8 (19%)177 (19%)64 (19%)
    Alcohol intake (g/day)44 ± 5939 ± 4542 ± 5939 ± 54
    Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)139 ± 20*143 ± 23*147 ± 21*154 ± 20§
    Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)77 ± 11*79 ± 13*81 ± 12*85 ± 12§
    Heart rate (beats/min)73 ± 11*72 ± 1076 ± 1377 ± 11
Biochemical lab parameters
    Glucose (mmol/l)4.83 ± 0.50*4.83 ± 0.33*5.44 ± 1.05§6.00 ± 1.67§
    Cholesterol (mmol/l)5.92 ± 1.096.20 ± 1.196.20 ± 1.146.10 ± 1.14
    HDL cholesterol (mmol/l)1.52 ± 0.36*1.50 ± 0.34*1.29 ± 0.36 *§1.21 ± 0.34§
    LDL cholesterol (mmol/l)3.90 ± 1.03*4.13 ± 1.004.19 ± 1.034.11 ± 1.06
    Triglycerides (mmol/l)1.15 ± 0.63*1.26 ± 0.58*1.56 ± 1.04*1.72 ± 0.94§
    Alanine aminotransferase (units/l)21 ± 14*23 ± 12*27 ± 22*31 ± 26§
    Aspartate aminotransferase (units/l)26 ± 12*25 ± 828 ± 1330 ± 19
     γGT (units/l)31 ± 38*33 ± 4142 ± 5850 ± 82
    ALP (units/l)169 ± 64*159 ± 52*180 ± 66187 ± 76§
    Fibrinogen (mg/dl)271 ± 66*274 ± 48*286 ± 74*302 ± 76§
Hormones
    Insulin (pmol/l)50 ± 13*56 ± 13*112 ± 70*§154 ± 89§
Insulin sensitivity, metabolic syndrome, diabetes status
    HOMA-IR1.80 ± 0.45*2.00 ± 0.43*4.65 ± 3.70*§7.18 ± 5.57§
    Metabolic syndrome37 (5%)3 (7%)218 (24%)139 (41%)
    Diabetes16 (2%)0 (0%)98 (11%)74 (28%)
  • Data are means ± SD or n (%), unless otherwise indicated. One-way ANOVA and Tukey post hoc for continuous variables.

  • *P < 0.05 vs. obese insulin-resistant subjects;

  • P < 0.05 vs. nonobese insulin-resistant subjects;

  • P < 0.05 vs. nonobese insulin-sensitive subjects;

  • §P < 0.05 vs. obese insulin-sensitive subjects. χ2 for categorical variables

  • P < 0.05 vs. all;

  • P < 0.05 vs. nonobese and obese insulin-sensitive subjects.