Table 1

Study characteristics

Chasan-Taber et al., 2008 (24)Dempsey et al., 2004 (28)Dempsey et al., 2004 (27)Harizopoulou et al., 2009 (23)/Oken et al., 2006 (25)Redden et al., 2010 (29)Rudra et al., 2006 (26)Zhang et al., 2006 (22)
Study designProspective cohortProspective cohortRetrospective case-controlCross-sectional surveyProspective cohortCross-sectional surveyProspective cohortRetrospective case-controlProspective cohort
Total subjects (N)1,006909
Cases of GDM (n)33421554091808422161,428
Country of studyU.S.U.S.U.S.GreeceU.S.U.S.U.S.U.S.U.S.
Study populationLatina Pregnancy StudyOMEGA StudyAlpha StudyHospital-based participantsProject VivaPRAMSOMEGA StudyAlpha StudyNurses' Health Study II
Prepregnancy meta-analysis
Early pregnancy meta-analysis
Total activity measureEnergy expenditure (KPAS score 4–20)Energy expenditure (MET-h/week)Energy expenditure (MET-h/week)Energy expenditure (MET-h/week)Frequency (h/week)Frequency (days/week)Energy expenditure (MET-h/week)Energy expenditure (MET-h/week)Energy expenditure (MET-h/week)
Exposure groupsPrepregnancy: 7.9, 9.5, 10.8, 12.3; early pregnancy: 6.8, 8.1, 9.2, 10.7 (quartile medians)None (Ref), <28, ≥28None (Ref), 0.1–9.9, 10–19.9, 29.9, ≥300–10 (Ref), ≥100–2 (Ref), 3–6, 7–13, ≥140–1 (Ref), 1–4, ≥5None (Ref), 0.1–14.9, ≥15.0None (Ref), 0.1–14.9, 15.0–29.9, ≥300.2–4.8 (Ref), 4.9–11.3, 11.4–21.3, 21.4–40.3, ≥40.4
GDM diagnostic criteriaNot reportedNDDGNDDGNDDGADASelf-reportNDDGCarpenter and CoustanValidated self-report (various)
Exposure assessment method(s)KPASStanford Seven-Day PA Recall; Minnesota Leisure-Time PAQ; Borg rating scaleStanford Seven-Day PA Recall; Minnesota Leisure-Time PAQ; Borg rating scaleIPAQPASEStandardized questionnaireStanford Seven-Day PA Recall; Minnesota Leisure-Time PAQ; Borg rating scaleStanford Seven-Day PA Recall; Minnesota Leisure-Time PAQ; Borg rating scaleStandardized questionnaire
Model covariablesAge, prepregnancy BMIAge, race/ethnicity, prepregnancy BMI, parityAge, race/ethnicity, prepregnancy BMI, nulliparity, smoking during pregnancyAge, prepregnancy BMI, pregnancy weight gain, income, education, occupation, residence, family history of diabetes, prior glucose intolerance, previous infant with macrosomia, current glycosuriaAge, race/ethnicity, prepregnancy BMI, history of GDM, maternal history of diabetesAge, race/ethnicity, prepregnancy BMI, parity, no., prenatal care visits, income, alcohol consumption during pregnancyAge, race/ethnicity, prepregnancy BMI, nulliparity, prepregnancy hypertensionAge, race/ethnicity, prepregnancy BMI, nulliparity, prepregnancy hypertensionAge, race/ethnicity, prepregnancy BMI, parity, smoking status, family history of diabetes, alcohol intake, total caloric energy intake, cereal fiber, glycemic load, total grams of fat
  • ADA, American Diabetes Association; IPAQ, International Physical Activity Questionnaire; KPAS, Kaiser Physical Activity Survey; NDDG, National Diabetes Data Group; PA, Physical Activity; PAQ, Physical Activity Questionnaire; PASE, Pregnancy Risk Assessment and Monitoring System; PRAMS, Pregnancy Risk Assessment and Monitoring System; Ref, referent.