Table 2

Comparison of risks of A1C-DM, FPG-DM, or FPG/A1C-DM in 4 years among subgroups of each risk factor after adjusting for age, sex, and center: the SHS

A1C-DMFPG-DMFPG/A1C-DM
OR95% CIPOR95% CIPOR95% CIP
FPG (mg/dL)
 IFG vs. NFG3.122.31–4.22<0.00012.341.81–3.03<0.0001
HbA1c (%)
 6.0–6.4 vs. <6.05.894.23–8.19<0.00013.432.27–5.16<0.0001
JNC-7 HTN status
 Pre-HTN vs. normal1.130.85–1.510.40761.501.09–2.050.01191.331.00–1.770.0491
 HTN vs. normal1.541.15–2.070.00351.631.17–2.260.00361.401.04–1.900.0270
Obesity status
 Overweight vs. normal1.400.94–2.090.09621.570.99–2.510.05641.501.01–2.230.0420
 Obese vs. normal2.661.83–3.88<0.00013.732.41–5.77<0.00012.992.05–4.34<0.0001
 Obese vs. overweight1.901.46–2.47<0.00012.371.76–3.19<0.00011.981.53–2.58<0.0001
Parental history of diabetes (yes vs. no)1.631.25–2.120.00031.220.92–1.620.17351.321.02–1.720.0369
Sibling history of diabetes (yes vs. no)1.581.26–2.000.00011.641.27–2.110.00011.421.12–1.800.0040
Albuminuria
 Micro- vs. normal1.971.39–2.800.00012.691.88–3.85<0.00012.381.66–3.40<0.0001
 Macro- vs. normal1.930.98–3.800.05572.431.26–4.700.00831.270.56–2.840.5682
Metabolic syndrome traits (yes vs. no)
 Elevated blood pressure1.561.23–1.990.00031.681.29–2.180.00011.561.22–1.990.0003
 HyperTG1.511.19–1.930.00091.611.23–2.100.00051.541.20–1.980.0008
 LowHDL-C1.511.19–1.900.00061.611.24–2.080.00031.551.22–1.960.0003
 HighWAIST2.611.92–3.56<0.00013.882.69–5.59<0.00012.431.79–3.30<0.0001
  • The risk-factor data from the baseline exam and the incident diabetes status data from the second exam collected from participants without A1C-DM, FPG-DM, or FPG/A1C-DM at the baseline exam were used to obtain the results for cumulative incident A1C-DM, FPG-DM, and FPG/A1C-DM, respectively. Albuminuria = normal, UACR <30 mg/g; micro-, 30 ≤ UACR < 300 mg/g; and macro-, 300 mg/g ≤UACR. FPG-DM = diabetes, FPG ≥126 mg/dL or on diabetes medications; IFG, 100 ≤ FPG < 126 mg/dL; and NFG, FPG <100 mg/dL. FPG/A1C-DM = diabetes, FPG ≥126 mg/dL or HbA1c ≥6.5%, or on diabetes medications; nondiabetic otherwise. Obesity = normal, BMI <25 kg/m2; overweight, 25 ≤ BMI < 30 kg/m2; obese, BMI ≥30 kg/m2. A1C-DM = diabetes, HbA1c ≥6.5% or on diabetes medications; nondiabetic otherwise. JNC-7 HTN status = normal, SBP <120 mmHg and DBP <80 mmHg; Pre-HTN, 120 ≤ SBP < 140 mmHg and DBP <90 mmHg, or SBP <140 and 80 ≤ DBP < 90 mmHg; HTN, SBP ≥140 or DBP ≥90 or on HTN medications. Metabolic syndrome traits = elevated blood pressure, SBP ≥130 mmHg, DBP ≥85 mmHg, or on HTN medications. highWAIST = WAIST >102 cm in men or >88 cm in women. hyperTG = TGs ≥150 mg/dL. lowHDL-C = HDL-C <40 mg/dL in men or <50 mg/dL in women. Data in bold are significant.