Table 3

Measures for estimation of biological interaction between low HDL cholesterol and nonuse of metformin for the risk of cancer in type 2 diabetes

Measures of biological interactionEstimate (95% CI)P
Between HDL cholesterol <1.0 mmol/L and nonuse of metformin
 Model 1*
  RERI3.00 (−0.14 to 6.14)0.0611
  AP0.49 (0.18–0.79)0.0017
  S2.38 (1.07–5.28)0.1091
 Model 2*
  RERI2.55 (−0.49 to 5.60)0.0999
  AP0.44 (0.11–0.78)0.0105
  S2.17 (0.94–4.99)0.1331
  • *Adjusted for LDL cholesterol–related risk indicators (LDL cholesterol ≥3.8 mmol/L and LDL cholesterol <2.8 mmol/L plus albuminuria), HDL cholesterol ≥1.30 mmol/L, and the nonlinear association of triglyceride with cancer.

  • †Further adjusted for age, sex, employment status, smoking status, alcohol intake, duration of diabetes, BMI (≥27.6 or <24.0 kg/m2), A1C, and systolic blood pressure at enrollment and use of statins, fibrates, other lipid-lowering drugs, ACE inhibitors/ARBs, and insulin during follow-up.

  • ‡Stratified Cox model analyses on deciles of the propensity score of use of metformin were used to control for likelihood of starting metformin therapy during follow-up.