Table 4

HRs of the copresence of HDL cholesterol <1.0 mmol/L and nonuse of metformin during follow-up versus all other groups for site-specific cancers and fatal and nonfatal cancers

Number of cancersHR (95% CI)*P
Cancer subtypes
 1) Lip, oral cavity, and pharynx6
 2) Respiratory and intrathoracic organs16
 3) Genitourinary organs16
 4) Lymphatic and hematopoietic tissue19
 5) Bone, connective tissue, skin, and breast7
 6) Other and unspecified sites19
 Cancer at sites other than digestive organs and peritoneum (1–6 combined)774.06 (2.39–6.89)<0.0001
 7) Digestive organs and peritoneum652.31 (1.17–4.54)0.0153
Fatal and nonfatal cancers
 Fatal cancer563.42 (1.80–6.49)0.0002
 Nonfatal cancer1192.70 (1.67–4.37)<0.0001
  • *Univariable Cox models with stratification on deciles of the propensity score of use of metformin during follow-up were used to obtain the HRs.

  • †Classification was based on the ICD-9 (there are overlaps among site-specific cancers).

  • ‡46 nonfatal cancer events developed before fatal cancer.