Table 2

Effect of family history of diabetes, genetic risk score, intervention, and clinical variables on the incidence of type 2 diabetes

HR95% CIP value
Family history of T2DM0.78(0.57–1.06)0.118
GRS (19 SNPs)1.04(0.90–1.20)0.617
Intervention vs. control group0.55(0.41–0.75)1.2 × 10−4
Family history of T2DM0.80(0.57–1.11)0.180
GRS (19 SNPs)1.02(0.87–1.18)0.840
Intervention vs. control group0.52(0.38–0.72)5.9 × 10−5
Fasting glucose (baseline)1.69(1.44–1.99)2.2 × 10−10
2-h glucose (baseline)1.35(1.14–1.60)0.0005
Fasting insulin (baseline)1.25(1.03–1.53)0.025
2-h insulin (baseline)0.81(0.63–1.02)0.076
BMI (baseline)1.17(0.98–1.39)0.077
Family history of T2DM0.92(0.65–1.29)0.609
GRS (19 SNPs)1.02(0.88–1.18)0.797
Intervention vs. control group0.74(0.52–1.06)0.106
Fasting glucose (baseline)1.93(1.57–2.38)3.5 × 10−10
Δ Fasting glucose (1-year change)1.15(0.96–1.38)0.129
2-h glucose (baseline)1.69(1.39–2.05)9.1 × 10−8
Δ 2-h glucose (1-year change)1.62(1.32–1.98)3.4 × 10−6
Fasting insulin (baseline)1.35(1.06–1.73)0.015
Δ Fasting insulin (1-year change)1.18(0.97–1.44)0.103
2-h insulin (baseline)1.05(0.79–1.39)0.755
Δ 2-h insulin (1-year change)1.36(1.05–1.75)0.018
BMI (baseline)1.18(0.99–1.40)0.061
Δ BMI (1-year change)1.19(0.98–1.44)0.084
  • For dichotomous variables, HRs are shown for the intervention group, FH+ of T2DM, and male subjects. For continuous variables, HRs are expressed as unit change per 1 SD. A, B, C represent alternative models: A = effects of FH, GRS, and intervention without clinical variables. B = including clinical variables at baseline. C = including 1-year changes in these variables (Cox regression, all models are adjusted for age, sex, baseline BMI, and study center). Boldface data indicate the significance of P value (P < 0.005 or less). T2DM, type 2 diabetes mellitus.