Table 1

Baseline characteristics according to the occurrence of primary and secondary end points during follow-up

Individuals with primary end point N = 85Individuals without primary end point N = 254P valueIndividuals with secondary end point N = 82Individuals without secondary end point N = 257P value
Sex, male/female (%)61/3960/400.90168/3258/420.156
Age (years)44.7 (9.0)40.3 (9.6)<0.00145.5 (9.9)40.1 (9.2)<0.001
Duration of diabetes (years)30.7 (8.8)26.8 (7.5)<0.00130.3 (10.0)27.0 (7.1)0.006
Nephropathy: yes (%)7541<0.0017841<0.001
Retinopathy: no/simplex/proliferative (%)8/37/5521/45/34<0.0016/37/5721/45/34<0.001
A1C (%)9.5 (1.5)8.9 (1.4)<0.0019.6 (1.5)8.8 (1.4)<0.001
BMI (kg/m2)23.9 (3.3)23.9 (2.8)0.99123.7 (3.2)23.9 (2.9)0.571
Total cholesterol (mmol/L)5.70 (1.10)4.99 (1.12)<0.0015.80 (1.13)4.97 (1.10)<0.001
HDL cholesterol (mmol/L)1.43 (0.42)1.55 (0.55)0.0331.52 (0.48)1.52 (0.54)0.961
Triglycerides (mmol/L)1.24 (0.93–1.70)0.81 (0.63–1.19)<0.0011.28 (0.90–1.66)0.81 (0.64–1.16)<0.001
Creatinine (μmol/L)104 (77–150)80 (71–92)<0.001105 (78–147)79 (72–92)<0.001
eGFRMDRD (mL/min/1.73 m2)65.5 (29.1)86.8 (21.1)<0.00165.5 (27.8)86.6 (21.9)<0.001
UAE rate (mg/24 h)644 (33–1,940)17 (7–525)<0.001720 (82–2,012)16 (7–468)<0.001
Blood pressure (mmHg)
 Systolic157 (24)136 (20)<0.001159 (24)136 (19)<0.001
 Diastolic85 (13)79 (12)0.00186 (14)79 (11)<0.001
 MAP109 (15)98 (13)<0.001111 (15)98 (13)<0.001
 Pulse pressure (mmHg)73 (21)57 (15)<0.00173 (21)57 (15)<0.001
RAAS inhibitors: yes (%)5120<0.0015020<0.001
Other antihypertensive medication: yes (%)6428<0.0016827<0.001
Smoking: never/former/current (%)28/19/5337/17/460.51326/17/5738/18/440.085
CEL (μmol/L)1.02 (0.28)0.92 (0.19)0.0041.03 (0.30)0.92 (0.18)0.003
CML (μmol/L)3.60 (1.12)3.54 (0.84)0.6343.56 (1.32)3.55 (0.75)0.967
Pentosidine (pmol/mg)49.3 (35.7–71.8)40.8 (34.0–49.0)0.00151.8 (34.2–73.1)41.0 (34.2–48.9)0.001
AGE score0.26 (1.17)−0.09 (0.79)0.0120.27 (1.32)−0.08 (0.72)0.024
C-reactive protein (mg/L)1.59 (0.64–3.22)0.96 (0.41–2.09)0.0081.42 (0.59–3.26)1.02 (0.44–2.16)0.021
sPLA2 (μg/mL)4.40 (2.80–7.00)4.00 (2.70–6.23)0.3294.05 (2.80–6.55)4.00 (2.70–6.55)0.948
IL-6 (pg/mL)2.18 (1.52–3.45)1.49 (0.99–2.35)<0.0012.42 (1.75–3.89)1.44 (1.00–2.21)<0.001
sICAM-1 (ng/mL)771 (258)726 (272)0.182805 (286)715 (260)0.008
Low-grade inflammation score0.21 (0.57)−0.07 (0.68)0.0010.23 (0.65)−0.07 (0.65)<0.001
sVCAM-1 (ng/mL)1,045 (269)984 (346)0.1411,100 (346)967 (318)0.001
Endothelial dysfunction score0.13 (0.70)−0.04 (0.81)0.0740.28 (0.85)−0.09 (0.75)<0.001
  • Data are means (SD), median (interquartile range), or percentages, as appropriate. Primary end point was a combined end point of fatal and nonfatal CVD, and the secondary end point was all-cause mortality. During the course of follow-up, 82 individuals died; 85 suffered a fatal (n = 48) and/or nonfatal (n = 53) CVD event. eGFRMDRD, estimated glomerular filtration rate by abbreviated modification of diet in renal disease equation.