Table 1

Characteristics of study participants with type 1 diabetes at the 3-year visit

Subjects with type 1 diabetes (N = 374)
25[OH]D level (ng/mL): mean ± SD (median)35.4 ± 13.0 (34.0)
Vitamin D status
 Normal (>30 ng/mL)244 (65.2%)
 Insufficient (20–30 ng/mL)92 (24.6%)
 Deficient (<20 ng/mL)38 (10.2%)
Age at 3-year visit: mean ± SD (median)39.7 ± 8.9 (39.7)
Female202 (54.0%)
Male172 (46.0%)
BMI (kg/m2): mean ± SD (median)26.2 ± 4.3 (25.5)
Current smoker
 Yes29 (8.3%)
 No321 (91.7%)
Total cholesterol (mg/dL)175.7 ± 32.2 (172.3)
HDL-cholesterol (mg/dL)62.3 ± 19.5 (59.0)
LDL-cholesterol (mg/dL)99.3 ± 26.6 (98.2)
Triglycerides (mg/dL)70.2 ± 47.4 (59.0)
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)111.6 ± 12.6 (110.0)
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)74.2 ± 8.7 (74.0)
Hypertensive¥
 Yes175 (46.9%)
 No198 (53.1%)
Coronary artery calcification
 Yes170 (45.5%)
 No204 (54.5%)
VDR 420 CC196 (59.2%)
CA111 (33.5%)
AA24 (7.3%)
VDR 416 TT132 (41.1%)
TG126 (39.3%)
CC63 (19.6%)
VDR M1T TT64 (17.1%)
CT178 (47.6%)
CC132 (35.3%)
VDR Bsm1 GG123 (32.9%)
GA178 (47.6%)
AA73 (19.5%)
  • †Smoking status is missing for 25 participants.

  • ¥Hypertensive is defined as blood pressure ≥140/90 mmHg or current hypertensive treatment. Hypertensive is missing for two participants.