Table 1

Baseline characteristics of 224 participants with diabetes, according to retinopathy status

CharacteristicsRetinopathy statusP value*
NoYes
n95129
Male sex55.862.00.35
Current cigarette smoker58.150.40.11
Use of insulin57.971.30.037
Use of oral hypoglycemic agents53.755.80.75
Use of lipid-lowering medication46.358.10.080
Age (years)58 (49, 66)60 (52, 66)0.43
BMI (kg/m2)29.5 ± 5.631.1 ± 6.60.070
SBP (mmHg)125.2 ± 13.1130.1 ± 15.10.011
Duration of diabetes (years)10 (6, 17)18 (10, 24)<0.001
A1C (%)7.6 ± 1.78.0 ± 1.20.022
Cholesterol (mmol/L)4.7 ± 1.14.5 ± 1.10.47
HDL cholesterol (mmol/L)1.5 ± 0.41.3 ± 0.50.056
Non–HDL cholesterol (mmol/L)3.3 ± 1.03.2 ± 1.10.85
LDL cholesterol (mmol/L)2.5 ± 0.72.5 ± 0.90.99
Triglyceride (mmol/L)1.3 (0.9, 1.9)1.3 (0.9, 1.9)0.50
ApoAI (g/L)1.5 ± 0.21.4 ± 0.30.001
ApoB (g/L)0.8 ± 0.20.9 ± 0.30.015
ApoB-to-apoAI ratio0.6 ± 0.20.7 ± 0.2<0.001
  • Data are %, mean ± SD, or median (25th, 75th percentile).

  • *P values were obtained using a χ2 test (categorical), a t test (continuous and normally distributed), or the Mann-Whitney U test (continuous and skewed), comparing diabetic participants with and without retinopathy.