Table 2

Associations of serum lipids with any diabetic retinopathy

Serum lipids% of eventsAny retinopathy
Model 1*P valueModel 2†P value
Cholesterol (mmol/L)
 1st quartile, <3.816.41.001.00
 2nd quartile, 3.8-4.512.80.91 (0.53–1.57)0.73 (0.40–1.35)
 3rd quartile, 4.5-5.214.61.02 (0.59–1.76)0.88 (0.47–1.66)
 4th quartile, ≥5.214.21.03 (0.60–1.78)0.82*0.90 (0.47–1.74)0.89*
 Per SD increase (1.1)0.94 (0.78–1.14)0.540.91 (0.72–1.14)0.40
HDL cholesterol (mmol/L)
 1st quartile, <0.921.21.001.00
 2nd quartile, 0.9-1.316.40.84 (0.40–1.75)0.80 (0.34–1.89)
 3rd quartile, 1.3-1.913.10.46 (0.22–0.95)0.37 (0.15–0.86)
 4th quartile, ≥1.912.00.39 (0.19–0.79)0.003*0.39 (0.16–0.94)0.017*
 Per SD decrease (0.5)0.84 (0.66–1.08)0.1820.94 (0.71–1.24)0.44
Non–HDL cholesterol (mmol/L)
 1st quartile, <1.916.41.001.00
 2nd quartile, 1.9-2.413.10.68 (0.34–1.35)0.65 (0.30–1.42)
 3rd quartile, 2.4-2.916.11.13 (0.55–2.32)0.93 (0.42–2.06)
 4th quartile, ≥2.915.00.95 (0.47–1.92)0.75*0.70 (0.29–1.65)0.61*
 Per SD increase (0.8)1.00 (0.79–1.29)0.960.87 (0.65–1.18)0.38
LDL cholesterol (mmol/L)
 1st quartile, <1.914.91.001.00
 2nd quartile, 1.9-2.418.21.56 (0.77–3.16)1.20 (0.52–2.76)
 3rd quartile, 2.4-2.910.90.71 (0.34–1.46)0.43 (0.18–1.06)
 4th quartile, ≥2.914.91.31 (0.63–2.71)0.95*1.07 (0.45–2.53)0.67*
 Per SD increase (0.8)1.12 (0.86–1.46)0.401.07 (0.77–1.48)0.68
Triglyceride (mmol/L)
 1st quartile, <0.918.51.001.00
 2nd quartile, 0.9-1.313.11.00 (0.59–1.72)0.91 (0.50–1.66)
 3rd quartile, 1.3-1.912.20.77 (0.45–1.31)0.73 (0.38–1.41)
 4th quartile, ≥1.914.41.03 (0.60–1.76)0.82*0.90 (0.47–1.73)0.65*
 Per SD increase (1.1)0.98 (0.81–1.20)0.880.95 (0.75–1.19)0.65
ApoAI (g/L)
 1st quartile, <0.919.21.001.00
 2nd quartile, 0.9-1.313.90.45 (0.25–0.82)0.37 (0.19–0.72)
 3rd quartile, 1.3-1.913.70.39 (0.22–0.69)0.48 (0.24–0.96)
 4th quartile, ≥1.910.60.26 (0.15–0.48)<0.001*0.33 (0.16–0.69)0.015*
 Per SD decrease (0.3)0.67 (0.54–0.83)<0.0010.76 (0.59–0.98)0.034
ApoB (g/L)
 1st quartile, <0.911.31.001.00
 2nd quartile, 0.9-1.315.01.90 (1.10–3.27)2.10 (1.15–3.82)
 3rd quartile, 1.3-1.915.01.92 (1.14–3.31)1.89 (1.03–3.43)
 4th quartile, ≥1.916.42.69 (1.53–4.73)0.001*2.69 (1.39–5.20)0.005*
 Per SD increase (0.3)1.36 (1.10–1.54)0.0041.31 (1.02–1.68)0.035
ApoB-to-apoAI ratio
 1st quartile, <0.911.81.001.00
 2nd quartile, 0.9-1.312.71.23 (0.72–2.09)0.99 (0.55–1.80)
 3rd quartile, 1.3-1.915.31.86 (1.08–3.20)1.62 (0.88–2.97)
 4th quartile, ≥ 1.917.62.84 (1.61–5.00)<0.001*2.13 (1.07–4.23)0.017*
 Per SD increase (0.2)1.60 (1.28–2.00)<0.0011.48 (1.13–1.95)0.005
  • Data are ORs (95% CI). Each risk factor is in separate models. Model 1: adjusted for age and sex. Model 2: model 1 plus adjusted for duration of diabetes, A1C, SBP, BMI, use of diabetic medications, lipid-lowering agents, and insulin. Age, duration of diabetes, A1C, SBP, and BMI were treated as continuous variables.

  • *Ptrend.