Table 1

Associations with incidence of LEA

OR95% CIP valueOR95% CIP value
Sex (male vs. female)3.251.99–5.28<0.0013.902.29–6.65<0.001
Age at diagnosis (years)
 10–19 vs. <100.710.41–1.220.21
 20–29 vs. <100.520.27–0.990.07
Glycosylated hemoglobin A1c (per 1%)1.361.22–1.52<0.0011.401.24–1.58<0.001
Glycosylated hemoglobin A1c quartiles (%)
 9.5–10.5 vs. <9.51.630.88–3.030.12
 10.6–12.0 vs. <9.51.991.09–3.640.03
 12.1–19.5 vs. <9.54.612.49–8.54<0.001
Diabetic retinopathy3.831.71–8.580.0012.621.13–6.090.04
Diabetic retinopathy severity
  Mild vs. none1.910.79–4.610.15
  Moderate vs. none3.991.49–10.670.006
  PDR vs. none13.535.73–31.93<0.001
Smoking history
  Past vs. never1.770.98–3.200.06
  Current vs. never2.011.23–3.900.006
Pack years smoked
  <5 vs. none1.440.73–2.840.301.260.58–2.720.56
  5–14 vs. none1.900.99–3.640.051.280.63–2.600.50
  ≥15 vs. none2.521.43–4.460.012.071.11–3.850.02
Cardiovascular disease history*0.930.27–3.170.91
Neuropathy history2.001.27–3.160.0031.681.02–2.760.04
BMI (kg/m2)
  25–30 vs. <251.130.70–1.830.61
  >30 vs. <250.450.14–1.460.18
  • All models (univariate and multivariate) additionally control for age. Missing rows indicate that variable was not significant and thus not included in the final multivariate model. Smoking history was not entered in the model because of multicollinearity with pack years smoked variable. PDR, proliferative diabetic retinopathy.

  • *Defined as having a history of angina, myocardial infarction, or stroke.