Table 1

Mean difference in intermediate outcomes by ethnicity and number of comorbid conditions

Blood pressure (mmHg)
MeasureSystolic*DiastolicA1C (%)Cholesterol (mmol/L)
Ethnic group comorbidity
 White
  0 (reference)0
  1 concordant4.6 (3.0–6.1)
  ≥2 concordant1.5 (−0.3 to 3.3)
  ≥1 discordant−1.4 (−3.5 to 0.8)
 Black
  00.9 (−0.9 to 2.9)
  1 concordant5.9 (4.3–7.6)
  ≥2 concordant6.2 (3.8–8.5)
  ≥1 discordant−3.1 (−6.7 to 0.3)
 South Asian
  0−2.3 (−4.2 to −0.3)§
  1 concordant2.6 (−0.5 to 5.3)
  ≥2 concordant1.4 (−0.8 to 3.6)
  ≥1 discordant−4.2 (−7.5 to −0.9)§
Ethnic group
 White (reference)000
 Black1.3 (0.7–1.9)0.3 (0.1–0.4)−0.04 (−0.1 to 0.02)
 South Asian−0.5 (−1.2 to 0.2)0.2 (0.04 to 0.3)−0.2 (−0.2 to −0.1)
Comorbidities, number
 0 (reference)000
 1 concordant1.5 (0.9–2.1)−0.2 (−0.3 to −0.1)−0.1 (−0.2 to −0.1)
 ≥2 concordant−0.1 (−0.9 to 0.6)−0.2 (−0.4 to −0.1)||−0.3 (−0.4 to −0.2)
 ≥1 discordant−1.0 (−2.0 to −0.6)§−0.1 (−0.3 to 0.1)−0.0 (−0.1 to 0.0)
  • Values are adjusted for age, sex, diabetes duration, BMI, socioeconomic status, and practice level clustering.

  • Mean values are presented with the 95% CI in parenthesis.

  • *Interaction between ethnicity and comorbidity (P = 0.03).

  • †Interaction between ethnicity and comorbidity (P > 0.05).

  • P < 0.001;

  • §P < 0.05;

  • ||P < 0.01.