Table 1

Baseline characteristics of patients with type 2 diabetes, stratified according to tertiles (T) of 24-h urinary sodium excretion

Baseline parameterT1T2T3
<150 mmol/24 h150–208 mmol/24 h>208 mmol/24 h
Age (years)67 ± 12*64 ± 1161 ± 12*
Sex (% male)42*5670*
Diabetes duration (years)14 ± 9*12 ± 811 ± 8
Obese (BMI >30 kg/m2) (%)414555*
Macrovascular disease (%)494344
Coronary heart disease (%)343237
Atrial fibrillation (%)202012*
Congestive cardiac failure (%)171115
C-reactive protein (geometric mean; IU/mL)2.42.12.6
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)141 ± 17140 ± 17140 ± 16
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)77 ± 10*80 ± 978 ± 10*
Antihypertensive therapy (%)787876
 ACE inhibitor (%)45*5657
 Angiotensin receptor blocker (%)131310
 Diuretic (%)383242
 β-Blocker (%)23*1520
 Calcium channel blocker (%)342834
 α-Blocker (%)555
HbA1c (%)7.8 ± 1.77.8 ± 1.37.7 ± 1.5
Fasting plasma glucose (mmol/L)9.6 ± 4.09.3 ± 3.29.3 ± 3.7
Metformin (%)505758
Sulfonylurea (%)37*5140*
Insulin (%)49%*36%39%
LDL cholesterol (mmol/L)2.6 ± 0.82.7 ± 0.82.6 ± 0.8
Triglycerides (mmol/L)2.0 ± 1.82.0 ± 1.42.2 ± 1.6
HDL cholesterol (mmol/L)1.2 ± 0.41.2 ± 0.31.1 ± 0.3
Statin (%)535249
eGFR (mL/min/1.73 m2)67 ± 26*73 ± 2578 ± 24*
Albuminuria (micro and macro, %)424250
Hemoglobin (g/dL)13.2 ± 1.513.4 ± 1.513.7 ± 1.5*
  • Data are mean ± SD unless otherwise indicated.

  • *P < 0.01 vs. middle tertile (T2).