Table 2

Linear regression models determining whether adiposity trajectories are associated with insulin resistance in boys and girls

Adiposity trajectory1 “Stable high”2 “Rising to high”3 “Falling to moderate”4 “Rising to moderate”6 “Moderate low stable”7 “Very low stable”
β coefficient (95% CI)P valueβ coefficient (95% CI)P valueβ coefficient (95% CI)P valueβ coefficient (95% CI)P valueβ coefficient (95% CI)P valueβ coefficient (95% CI)P value
Cardiovascular risk
 Boys
  HOMA-IR
   Model 11.6 (1.3–2.0)<0.0011.8 (1.5–2.1)<0.0011.1 (0.9–1.2)0.271.4 (1.2–1.7)<0.0010.9 (0.8–1.1)0.220.7 (0.6–1.0)0.04
   Model 21.6 (1.3–1.9)<0.0011.7 (1.4–2.1)<0.0011.1 (0.9–1.2)0.391.4 (1.2–1.7)<0.0010.9 (0.8–1.0)0.170.7 (0.6–1.0)0.04
   Model 31.6 (1.3–2.0)<0.0011.8 (1.1–1.5)<0.0011.1 (1.0–1.3)0.071.5 (1.2–1.8)<0.0010.9 (0.8–1.1)0.170.9 (0.6–1.2)0.39
  Insulin
   Model 11.6 (1.4–2.0)<0.0011.7 (1.5–2.1)<0.0011.1 (0.9–1.2)0.341.4 (1.2–1.6)<0.0010.9 (0.8–1.1)0.210.8 (0.6–1.0)0.04
   Model 21.6 (1.3–1.9)<0.0011.7 (1.4–2.0)<0.0011.0 (0.9–1.2)0.481.4 (1.2–1.6)<0.0010.9 (0.8–1.0)0.160.8 (0.6–1.0)0.04
   Model 31.6 (1.3–2.0)<0.0011.8 (1.5–2.1)<0.0011.1 (1.0–1.3)0121.4 (1.2–1.7)<0.0010.9 (0.8–1.0)0.160.9 (0.6–1.2)0.40
 Girls
  HOMA-IR
   Model 11.6 (1.3–2.0)<0.0011.3 (1.1–1.5)<0.0011.0 (0.9–1.1)1.01.1 (0.9–1.2)0.251.0 (0.9–1.2)0.751.1 (0.9–1.5)0.26
   Model 21.6 (1.3–2.0)<0.0011.3 (1.1–1.5)0.0021.0 (0.9–1.1)0.761.1 (1.0–1.2)0.231.0 (0.9–1.2)0.851.1 (0.8–1.3)0.65
   Model 31.5 (1.2–1.8)0.0011.2 (1.0–1.4)0.0561.0 (1.0)0.841.1 (0.9–1.2)0.311.0 (0.9–1.2)0.731.0 (0.8–1.4)0.75
  Insulin
   Model 11.6 (1.3–1.9)<0.0010.3 (1.1–1.5)0.0011.0 (0.9–1.1)0.721.1 (1.0–1.2)0.191.0 (0.9–1.2)0.781.1 (0.9–1.4)0.26
   Model 21.6 (1.3–1.9)<0.0011.3 (1.1–1.5)0.0011.0 (0.9–1.2)0.501.1 (1.0–1.2)0.161.0 (0.9–1.1)0.911.1 (0.8–1.3)0.61
   Model 31.5 (1.2–1.8)<0.0011.2 (1.0–1.4)0.0651.0 (0.9–1.2)0.601.1 (0.9–1.3)0.221.0 (0.9–1.2)0.661.1 (0.8–1.4)0.64
  • Model 1 unadjusted for any covariates.

  • Model 2 adjusted for age, gestational age, ethnicity, diet, exercise, and family income (annual income in Australian dollars ≤$25,000 or >$25,000).

  • Model 3 also adjusted for puberty, excluding 170 girls and 164 boys accidently shown diagrams with ambiguous labeling.

  • Adiposity trajectory 5 is the comparison group. The bold text indicates results associated with a P value < 0.05.