Table 1

Population characteristics according to diabetes status at baseline*

VariableNondiabetesDiabetes
N267,05121,611
Age (years)61.4 ± 5.462.1 ± 5.1
Male (%)57.566.6
Race (%)
 White93.287.3
 Nonwhite5.911.3
Education (%)
 <8 years4.06.5
 8–11 years17.120.4
 12 years or completed high school9.410.2
 Post-high school or some college22.723.9
 College and postgraduate44.636.2
Smokers (%)
 Never38.634.1
 Past50.556.7
 Current10.07.9
Coffee consumption (%)
 None10.310.6
 <1 cup/day16.217.6
 1 cup/day16.117.4
 2 to 3 cups/day41.439.2
 >3 cups/day15.514.6
BMI (kg/m2)26.7 ± 4.829.8 ± 5.8
Physical activity (%)
 Never or rarely15.122.1
 <1 time/week13.513.6
 1 to 2 times/week22.120.8
 3 to 4 times/week28.325.0
 ≥5 times/week20.317.4
Health status (%)
 Excellent/very good59.022.8
 Good32.547.4
 Fair or poor7.828.6
Heart disease (%)
 No88.175.6
 Yes11.624.0
Stroke (%)
 No98.296.1
 Yes1.43.4
Cancers
 No88.686.2
 Yes7.99.1
  • *Data are means ± SD for continuous variables and proportions for categorical variables. Participants without diabetes (4,923 or 1.8%) and participants with diabetes (476 or 2.2%) had missing data on BMI; for categorical variables, percentage may not add up to 100% because of missing values.