Table 2

Incidence rate and HR of bladder cancer with pioglitazone use: the KPNC diabetes registry, 1997–2008

Median (range) bladder cancer incidence rate (per 100,000 person-years)HR (95% CI) adjusted for age and sexFully adjusted HR (95% CI)*
Never use of pioglitazone68.8 (64.1–73.6)Ref.Ref.
Ever use of pioglitazone81.5 (64.7–98.4)1.2 (0.9–1.5)1.2 (0.9–1.5)
Time since starting pioglitazone (months)
 <1867.1 (41.8–92.4)1.1 (0.8–1.6)1.2 (0.8–1.7)
 18–3685.2 (51.8–118.6)1.3 (0.9–2.0)1.4 (0.9–2.1)
 >3693.1 (63.5–122.7)1.3 (0.9–1.8)1.3 (0.9–1.8)
Ptrend0.040.07
Duration of therapy (months)
 <1248.4 (29.0–67.8)0.8 (0.5–1.2)0.8 (0.6–1.3)
 12–2486.7 (52.0–121.4)1.3 (0.9–2.0)1.4 (0.9–2.1)
 >24102.8 (71.7–133.8)1.5 (1.1–2.0)1.4 (1.03–2.0)
Ptrend0.020.03
Cumulative dose (mg)
 1–10,50059.7 (39.0–80.4)1.0 (0.7–1.4)1.0 (0.7–1.5)
 10,501–28,00076.8 (48.3–105.2)1.1 (0.8–1.6)1.2 (0.8–1.8)
 >2,8000105.9 (68.0–143.8)1.5 (1.1–2.2)1.4 (0.96–2.1)
Ptrend0.050.08
  • *Includes all potential confounders listed in Table 1 in the statistical model.

  • †Never use of pioglitazone was the reference group for the calculation of the HR associated with ever use of pioglitazone and time, duration, and dose of pioglitazone use.

  • ‡Also adjusted for use of other diabetes medications.