Table 2

Adjusted HRs* (95% CI) for ever use of pioglitazone and risk of cancer of the prostate, female breast, lung/bronchus and colon, NHL, corpus uteri, pancreas, kidney/renal pelvis, and rectum and melanoma: KPNC Diabetes Registry, 1997–2005

ProstateFemale breastLung/bronchusColonNHLCorpus uteriPancreasKidney/renal pelvisRectumMelanoma
Persons with cancer (n)2,1051,5611,6371,260569552431430390373
Ever pioglitazone1.0 (0.8–1.2)1.0 (0.8–1.3)1.0 (0.8–1.3)0.9 (0.7–1.1)1.3 (1.0–1.8)1.1 (0.8–1.5)1.2 (0.8–1.7)0.7 (0.4–1.1)1.2 (0.8–1.8)1.3 (0.9–2.0)
Ever other TZD1.0 (0.7–1.3)0.9 (0.7–1.2)0.9 (0.6–1.3)1.1 (0.8–1.5)0.7 (0.4–1.2)1.2 (0.8–1.9)1.0 (0.6–1.8)1.3 (0.7–2.3)0.7 (0.4–1.5)1.0 (0.5–1.8)
Ever metformin1.0 (0.9–1.1)0.9 (0.8–1.0)1.0 (0.8–1.1)1.0 (0.9–1.2)1.0 (0.8–1.2)0.9 (0.8–1.2)1.2 (1.0–1.5)1.3 (1.0–1.6)0.9 (0.7–1.2)0.8 (0.6–1.1)
Ever insulin0.8 (0.7–0.9)1.0 (0.9–1.2)1.1 (0.9–1.3)1.1 (0.9–1.3)1.0 (0.8–1.3)1.0 (0.8–1.3)3.1 (2.4–4.0)1.3 (0.9–1.7)1.0 (0.7–1.4)1.1 (0.8–1.5)
Ever sulfonylureas1.0 (0.8–1.1)1.0 (0.8–1.1)1.2 (1.0–1.4)1.0 (0.9–1.2)1.1 (0.9–1.5)1.1 (0.9–1.4)2.3 (1.7–3.2)1.1 (0.8–1.4)1.2 (0.9–1.7)1.3 (0.9–1.8)
Ever other OHA1.2 (0.8–1.8)0.7 (0.4–1.3)0.9 (0.6–1.5)1.0 (0.6–1.7)1.7 (1.0–3.1)1.0 (0.5–2.1)1.2 (0.6–2.4)0.6 (0.2–1.9)0.5 (0.1–1.9)0.9 (0.3–2.3)
Never diabetes drug prescription0.8 (0.7–1.0)0.9 (0.7–1.1)1.0 (0.8–1.2)1.0 (0.8–1.2)1.0 (0.7–1.4)0.8 (0.6–1.1)0.9 (0.6–1.4)1.2 (0.8–1.7)0.9 (0.6–1.4)1.1 (0.7–1.7)
Never two same drug prescriptions1.2 (0.9–1.5)0.9 (0.7–1.2)1.1 (0.8–1.4)1.0 (0.7–1.4)1.2 (0.7–1.9)0.8 (0.5–1.4)2.3 (1.4–4.0)0.8 (0.4–1.5)0.9 (0.5–1.6)1.7 (1.0–2.9)
  • OHA, oral hypoglycemic agent.

  • *HRs are adjusted for age, ever use of other diabetes medications, year of cohort entry, sex, race/ethnicity, income, current smoking, baseline HbA1c, diabetes duration, new diabetes diagnosis, creatinine, and congestive heart failure.

  • †Never use of pioglitazone as reference group. Identical method was used to determine the HR of other diabetes medications.