Table 3

Adjusted HRs* (95% CI) for time since initiation of pioglitazone, duration of pioglitazone use, and dose of pioglitazone used and risk of cancer at 10 sites: KPNC Diabetes Registry, 1997–2005

ProstateFemale breastLung/bronchusColonNHLCorpus uteriPancreasKidney/renal pelvisRectumMelanoma
Patients with cancer (n)2,1051,5611,6371,260569552431430390373
Time since initiation (months)
 Never used1.01.01.01.01.01.00.8 (0.5–1.5)1.01.01.0
 120.9 (0.7–1.3)1.1 (0.8–1.6)1.0 (0.7–1.4)0.5 (0.3–0.9)1.3 (0.8–2.2)1.0 (0.6–1.7)1.5 (0.7–3.1)0.7 (0.3–1.5)0.7 (0.3–1.6)1.1 (0.5–2.2)
 12–230.8 (0.6–1.2)0.7 (0.5–1.2)1.0 (0.7–1.5)1.0 (0.6–1.6)1.8 (1.1–2.9)0.9 (0.4–1.7)1.00.4 (0.1–1.2)1.4 (0.7–2.9)2.0 (1.1–3.6)
 24–351.2 (0.8–1.7)1.0 (0.7–1.7)1.3 (0.9–2.0)1.2 (0.7–1.9)1.3 (0.7–2.5)0.6 (0.3–1.6)0.5 (0.2–1.4)1.0 (0.4–2.2)1.5 (0.7–3.5)1.7 (0.8–3.6)
 36–471.1 (0.7–1.8)0.8 (0.4–1.6)0.7 (0.3–1.3)1.2 (0.7–2.0)0.8 (0.3–2.2)1.6 (0.8–3.4)0.6 (0.2–2.0)0.7 (0.2–2.1)1.6 (0.6–4.4)1.5 (0.6–3.7)
 48+0.7 (0.4–1.5)1.6 (1.0–2.8)1.0 (0.5–1.9)0.9 (0.4–1.8)1.2 (0.4–3.4)3.0 (1.6–5.8)0.6 (0.2–2.3)0.8 (0.3–2.7)1.8 (0.5–6.0)0.7 (0.2–3.0)
 Test for trend0.8210.6720.9960.9610.2000.0490.0520.2170.1540.103
Duration of use (months)
 Never1.01.01.01.01.01.00.9 (0.5–1.7)1.01.01.0
 <120.8 (0.6–1.1)1.0 (0.7–1.3)0.9 (0.6–1.2)0.8 (0.6–1.2)1.3(0.8–1.9)1.2 (0.8–1.8)1.4 (0.7–2.8)0.5 (0.2–1.0)1.2 (0.7–2.1)1.2 (0.7–2.2)
 12–230.9 (0.6–1.3)0.9 (0.6–1.4)1.0 (0.7–1.5)0.8 (0.5–1.3)1.6 (1.0–2.7)1.0 (0.5–1.8)1.00.7 (0.3–1.6)1.0 (0.4–2.2)2.0 (1.1–3.6)
 24–351.3 (0.9–1.8)1.1 (0.6–1.8)1.4 (0.9–2.1)1.1 (0.6–1.8)1.3 (0.7–2.7)0.8 (0.3–1.9)0.7 (0.2–2.1)0.8 (0.3–2.1)1.5 (0.6–3.7)1.6 (0.7–3.6)
 36+1.3 (0.9–2.0)1.2 (0.7–2.1)0.8 (0.4–1.5)0.8 (0.4–1.5)1.1 (0.4–2.7)1.6 (0.8–3.3)0.6 (0.2–2.3)1.1 (0.4–2.7)0.8 (0.2–3.3)0.9 (0.3–2.9)
 Test for trend0.4650.8330.8840.3510.1260.5230.1370.3140.7860.094
Dose (mg)
 Never used1.01.01.01.01.01.01.0 (0.6–1.8)1.01.01.0
 1–9,0000.9 (0.7–1.2)1.0 (0.7–1.3)1.0 (0.7–1.3)0.9 (0.6–1.3)1.1 (0.7–1.7)1.3 (0.9–1.9)1.5 (0.8–2.9)0.5 (0.2–1.0)1.0 (0.5–1.8)1.4 (0.9–2.4)
 9,001–25,0001.0 (0.7–1.3)0.8 (0.6–1.2)1.0 (0.7–1.4)0.9 (0.6–1.3)1.8 (1.2–2.8)0.9 (0.5–1.6)1.00.7 (0.3–1.4)1.3 (0.7–2.5)1.5 (0.9–2.7)
 >25,0001.1 (0.8–1.5)1.4 (0.9–2.1)1.0 (0.7–1.6)0.8 (0.4–1.3)1.2 (0.6–2.3)1.2 (0.6–2.2)0.8 (0.3–2.0)0.9 (0.4–2.1)1.4 (0.6–3.3)1.3 (0.6–2.9)
 Test for trend0.9640.7950.9090.1950.0470.7100.3410.2110.4330.076
  • *HRs are adjusted for age, ever use of other diabetes medications, and year of cohort entry. Never use of pioglitazone is reference group for all cancers except pancreatic cancer.