Table 1

Baseline characteristics of study participants by the allocated treatment group (ITT analysis)

Carbohydrate counting (n = 28)Control subjects (n = 28)P value
Female participants13 (46.4%)19 (67.9%)0.105
Age (years)*41.2 ± 10.039.8 ± 9.80.601
Years of school completed14 (10–18)13 (13–15.5)0.840
Duration of diabetes (years)*21.9 ± 11.019.8 ± 11.70.490
Duration of pump therapy (years)2 (1–3)2 (0–3.5)0.796
Type of insulin
 Glulisine14 (50.0%)17 (60.7%)0.340
 Lispro12 (42.9%)7 (25.0%)
 Aspart2 (7.1%)4 (14.3%)
Insulin requirement (IU/day)
 Total36 (24.5–49)33 (28.5–39.5)0.282
 Basal22.5 (15–26)18.5 (14–22)0.268
 Boluses15 (10.5–21.5)12.5 (10–20.5)0.522
BMI (kg/m2)23.7 (21–25.2)23.8 (20.8–26.8)0.670
Waist circumference (cm)83 (78.5–91)78 (74–85.5)0.194
Glycated hemoglobin (%)*^7.9 ± 0.98.1 ± 1.50.526
  • Categorical variables are presented as frequency with percent in parentheses.

  • *Continuous variables with a normal distribution are presented as mean with SD in parentheses.

  • †Continuous variables that do not have a normal distribution are presented as median with the interquartile range in parentheses.

  • ^Normal range 3.5–6.0%.