Table 1

Baseline characteristics of men and women who developed or did not develop diabetes at 6 years

MenWomen
Not diabetic at follow-upDiabetic at follow-upAge-adjusted PNot diabetic at follow-upDiabetic at follow-upAge-adjusted P
n2,3284782,722417
Age (years)51.1 ± 8.452.5 ± 8.751.6 ± 8.754.1 ± 8.8
BMI (kg/m2)24.1 ± 2.824.8 ± 3.1<0.00124.6 ± 3.126.0 ± 3.3<0.001
Waist circumference (cm)83 ± 785 ± 8<0.00181 ± 985 ± 10<0.001
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)116 ± 16121 ± 17<0.001115 ± 18123 ± 20<0.001
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)76 ± 1178 ± 11<0.00173 ± 1177 ± 12<0.001
FPG (mmol/L)4.7 ± 0.55.1 ± 0.6<0.0014.6 ± 0.44.9 ± 0.6<0.001
2-h glucose (mmol/L)6.1 ± 1.68.0 ± 1.9<0.0016.6 ± 1.58.4 ± 1.6<0.001
A1C (%)5.3 ± 0.35.6 ± 0.5<0.0015.3 ± 0.35.8 ± 0.5<0.001
Fasting insulin (pmol/L)35.8 ×/÷ 25.438.3 ×/÷ 28.10.01641.1 ×/÷ 30.646.1 ×/÷ 27.2<0.001
HOMA-IR1.2 ×/÷ 0.91.4 ×/÷ 1.1<0.0011.4 ×/÷ 1.11.7 ×/÷ 1.0<0.001
HOMA-β105.3 ×/÷ 123.484.5 ×/÷ 223.2<0.001139.6 ×/÷ 142.2120.9 ×/÷ 150.0<0.001
Total cholesterol (mmol/L)5.0 ± 0.95.1 ± 1.0<0.0014.9 ± 0.95.2 ± 0.9<0.001
HDL cholesterol (mmol/L)1.2 ± 0.31.1 ± 0.30.0261.2 ± 0.31.2 ± 0.3<0.001
Triglycerides (mmol/L)1.6 ×/÷ 1.21.9 ×/÷ 1.2<0.0011.3 ×/÷ 0.81.8 ×/÷ 1.1<0.001
hsCRP (mg/dL)0.12 ×/÷ 0.570.14 ×/÷ 0.420.0050.10 ×/÷ 0.600.15 ×/÷ 0.25<0.001
Serum creatinine (mg/dL)1.0 ± 0.21.0 ± 0.20.0720.73 ± 0.160.73 ± 0.130.898
Hypertension (%)8.614.9<0.00110.925.2<0.001
Family history of diabetes (%)9.214.0<0.00110.917.5<0.001
Smoker (%)46.148.20.3192.45.60.001
Living in urban area (Ansan) (%)50.161.7<0.00145.251.3<0.001
Sporting activity (≥1 per week) (%)39.238.70.92932.934.30.150
Alcohol intake (≥60 Kcal per day) (%)45.249.30.0532.84.10.042
Child with birth weight >4 kg (%)11.212.30.338
  • Data are means ± SD, geometric mean ×/÷ SD, or column percentage. Comparisons are adjusted for age.