Table 1

Demographic characteristics for study population

HC (N = 15)DM–Non-DPN (N = 12)PP-DM-DPN (N = 11)DM-DPN (N = 11)
Baseline characteristics
 Sex (F/M)6/93/92/96/5
 Age (years)50.4 ± 2.1145.5 ± 4.2555.73 ± 2.0757.91 ± 1.53#
 Duration of DM (years)7.75 ± 3.349.91 ± 3.5610.91 ± 2.63
 BMI (kg/m2)27.46 ± 1.1228.48 ± 1.3830.42 ± 1.5832.15 ± 1.83*
 Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)121.6 ± 2.15116.75 ± 5.68122.09 ± 6.10130.82 ± 5.13#
 Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)75.73 ± 2.5674.17 ± 3.7680.0 ± 3.9678.55 ± 2.60
 HDL (mg/dL)55.93 ± 4.0260.0 ± 5.6152.09 ± 5.5149.0 ± 5.02
 LDL (mg/dL)121.0 ± 7.0785.81 ± 10.61*90.64 ± 8.06*74.36 ± 7.38*
 Triglycerides (mg/dL)87.82 ± 9.16123.82 ± 29.2890.40 ± 13.22110.63 ± 24.00
 HbA1c (%)5.72 ± 0.097.23 ± 0.489.4 ± 0.778.27 ± 0.51
 Glucose (mg/dL)83.17 ± 1.88124.36 ± 12.17207.20 ± 25.06*158.13 ± 22.65*
 Insulin (μIU/mL)5.90 ± 1.2010.80 ± 2.5213.71 ± 5.23*26.76 ± 9.58*
NT concentrations (pmol/mg protein)3.14 ± 0.324.32 ± 0.44*4.47 ± 0.46*4.81 ± 0.47*
Clinical neuropathy assessment
 TNS0.60 ± 1.150.56 ± 1.285.73 ± 1.34*,#9.50 ± 1.34*,+,#
  Total sensory score0.07 ± 0.480.08 ± 0.531.55 ± 0.56*3.14 ± 0.56*,+,#
  Total motor score0.17 ± 0.320.19 ± 0.361.45 ± 0.38*,#2.27 ± 0.38*,#
  Total symptom score0.37 ± 0.460.29 ± 0.512.73 ± 0.53*,#4.09 ± 0.53*,#
NCS
 Ulnar motor amplitude6.11 ± 0.435.72 ± 0.756.41 ± 0.623.61 ± 0.46*,+
 Ulnar motor CV44.52 ± 2.4751.21 ± 1.92*50.24 ± 2.0743.11 ± 2.05*,+
 Ulnar sensory amplitude32.45 ± 5.4529.08 ± 6.8829.26 ± 6.3314.35 ± 2.24*
 Ulnar sensory CV46.56 ± 1.1249.11 ± 1.3245.36 ± 1.8742.8 ± 3.39+
 Peroneal ankle amplitude4.45 ± 0.504.91 ± 0.563.47 ± 0.583.51 ± 0.61
 Peroneal below fibula CV45.71 ± 1.4845.60 ± 1.6640.35 ± 1.73*,#38.17 ± 1.81*,#
 Peroneal below fibula amplitude4.65 ± 0.534.48 ± 0.553.17 ± 0.573.21 ± 0.49
 Peroneal above fibula CV46.15 ± 1.1348.06 ± 1.9942.50 ± 3.1445.41 ± 1.11
 Peroneal above fibula amplitude4.03 ± 0.264.54 ± 0.573.47 ± 0.523.82 ± 0.24
  • Data are presented as mean ± SEM or n (%). Comparisons between groups were analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis one-way ANOVA. Wilcoxon rank sum test was used for less than two groups.

  • * P < 0.05 vs. HCs;

  • + P < 0.05 vs. PP-DM-DPN;

  • # P < 0.05 vs. DM–Non-DPN.