Table 1

Characteristics of nondiabetic control subjects (n = 45) and diabetic patients (n = 94) according to albuminuria stratum

Nondiabetic subjectsSubjects with diabetesP value in diabetes
NormoalbuminuriaMicroalbuminuriaMacroalbuminuria
n45414112
Age (years)53 ± 1359 ± 1364 ± 12*63 ± 130.12
Male sex (%)567366830.48
Diabetes duration (years)24 ± 1120 ± 927 ± 80.064
Type diabetes (% type 2)4978830.007
History of cardiovascular disease (%)02245640.018
Smoking (%)221032330.035
BMI (kg/m2)27 ± 630 ± 532 ± 632 ± 50.28
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)132 ± 16139 ± 15141 ± 17152 ± 14*0.052
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)74 ± 978 ± 1077 ± 7777 ± 130.90
Antihypertensive medication (%)1872*95*100*0.006
ACE inhibitors/ARBs (%)465*80*83*0.24
 Diuretics1132*63*75*0.015
 Hypertension3685*97*100*0.071
HbA1c (%)5.4 ± 0.37.7 ± 1.0*7.6 ± 1.3*7.8 ± 0.7*0.87
eGFR Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (mL/min per 1.73 m2)86 ± 1485 ± 2172 ± 2255 ± 24<0.001
ACR (mg/mmol)0.56 (0.44–1.0)0.70 (0.36–1.21)8.7 (5.6–13.7)*115 (71–130)*<0.001
  • Parametric variables are expressed as means ± SD and nonparametric variables are median (interquartile range).

  • *P < 0.001;

  • P < 0.05;

  • P < 0.01 vs. nondiabetic control subjects, calculated using the independent-samples t test for normal distributed variables and the Mann-Whitney U test for nonnormal distributed variables. Hypertension was defined as systolic blood pressure >140 mmHg, diastolic blood pressure >90 mmHg, or use of antihypertensive medication.