Table 2

Damage-marker concentrations in nondiabetic control subjects and in diabetic patients according to albuminuria stratum

Nondiabetic subjectsSubjects with diabetesP value in diabetes
NormoalbuminuriaMicroalbuminuriaMacroalbuminuria
Albumin (mg/mmol)0.56 (0.44–1.0)0.70 (0.36–1.21)8.7 (5.6–13.7)*115 (71–130)*<0.001
Glomerular
 IgG (μg/mmol)465 (279–867)242 (151–751)1,320 (590–3,780)7,379 (5,079–9,202)*<0.001
Proximal tubular
 KIM-1 (ng/mmol)65 (33–104)168 (116–216)*122 (73–221)*305 (112–417)*0.53
 NAG (units/mmol)0.10 (0.07–0.14)0.9 (0.6–1.4)*1.2 (0.9–2.1)*2.5 (1.4–3.4)*<0.001
 NGAL (μg/mmol)1.3 (0.8–2.0)2.1 (1.1–7.2)5.5 (2.9–14.0)*18.0 (6.9–45.1)*0.001
 Cystatin C (μg/mmol)4.2 (3.3–5.1)2.6 (1.8–4.4)3.9 (2.7–5.0)10.3 (6.7–33.3)*<0.001
Distal tubular
 H-FABP (ng/mmol)34 (24–44)130 (59–413)*300 (104–1,215)*2,742 (712–7,199)*<0.001
  • Data are per mmol urinary creatinine concentration and given as medians (25th–75th percentile).

  • *P < 0.001;

  • P < 0.01 vs. nondiabetic control subjects, calculated using the Mann-Whitney U test.