Table 1

Age- and sex-adjusted means or proportions of baseline characteristics by race and blood pressure category* at baseline

African AmericanP for trend§WhiteP for trend§African AmericanWhiteP
Normal BPPrehypertensionHypertensionNormal BPPrehypertensionHypertension
n9546639354,9701,9681,4032,5528,341
Age (years)43.8 (6.1)46.2 (5.9)48.7 (4.8)<0.00147.0 (5.6)48.4 (5.1)50.1 (4.0)<0.00146.2 (6.0)47.9 (5.4)<0.001
Women (%)66.456.463.80.51160.745.050.3<0.00162.955.2<0.001
Education < HS (%)18.121.725.2 (0.5)<0.0017.06.79.10.00624.18.4<0.001
SBP (mmHg)107.0 (7.5)123.7 (7.3)134.8 (21.0)<0.001105.6 (8.3)124.6 (6.7)131.3 (17.5)<0.001122.7 (18.8)114 (15.2)<0.001
DBP (mmHg)69.1 (6.2)80.2 (5.9)87.5 (12.5)<0.00166.9 (6.9)77.9 (6.4)81.7 (10.7)<0.00179.2 (11.8)71.8 (9.9)<0.001
HDL-C (mg/dL)55.5 (16.2)56.3 (18.8)53.2 (17.1)0.00552.1 (16.0)51.0 (15.4)48.3 (15.8)<0.00154.3 (17.2)51.4 (16.0)<0.001
Triglycerides (mg/dL)77.7 (48.5)84.4 (89.6)97.5 (72.7)<0.00197.1 (67.5)113.3 (92.9)130.5 (112.0)<0.00189.6 (71.1)104.6 (85.0)<0.001
Fasting glucose (mg/dL)94.2 (9.5)95.8 (9.8)98.6 (10.4)<0.00194.8 (8.6)96.5 (9.1)98.8 (9.5)<0.00197.1 (10.3)95.6 (9.1)<0.001
Fasting insulin (μU/mL)11.9 (7.6)13.2 (8.8)16.4 (11.1)<0.0018.3 (5.2)10.4 (7.5)13.4 (9.7)<0.00113.9 (9.5)9.7 (7.0)<0.001
WC (cm)90.1 (13.3)94.9 (14.3)99.4 (15.9)<0.00189.6 (12.7)94.1 (13.5)98.3 (14.6)<0.00196 (15.4)91.8 (13.9)<0.001
BMI (kg/m2)27.4 (5.6)29.5 (6.2)31.2 (6.8)<0.00125.5 (4.1)27.4 (4.9)29.0 (5.7)<0.00129.4 (6.4)26.5 (4.8)<0.001
Alcohol (drinks/week)2.7 (8.3)3.4 (8.9)3.8 (8.2)0.0063.7 (6.5)4.6 (8.1)4.4 (8.1)0.0013.4 (8.4)4 (7.2)0.001
Current smoker (%)30.731.528.70.45925.819.720.6<0.00131.023.6<0.001
Parent history of DM (%)28.726.228.40.90121.324.124.70.02528.022.6<0.001
Physical activity0.12 (0.97)0.09 (0.98)−0.06 (0.97)<0.0010.07 (0.98)−0.04 (1.00)−0.06 (0.99)<0.0010.04 (0.98)0.03 (0.99)0.508
  • Data are mean (SD) or percent, unless otherwise indicated. SD is from the unadjusted distribution. BP, blood pressure; DM, diabetes; HS, high school; WC, waist circumference.

  • *Blood pressure categories: normal, SBP <120 and DBP <80 mmHg and not using antihypertensive medication; prehypertension, not hypertension and SBP 120–139 or DBP 80–89 mmHg; hypertension, SBP ≥140, DBP ≥90 mmHg, or using antihypertensive medication.

  • ‡Exponent of log transformed triglycerides, therefore is approximately the median of the untransformed distribution. The SD is from the distribution of log (triglycerides).

  • §P value from a simple linear contrast.

  • ‖Data are z scores. Each study’s physical activity measures were normalized to that study’s population. A higher z score means a greater physical activity level of that participant relative to others in the same study. For example, a z score of 1.96 means that that participant was more physically active than ∼95% of the participants in that study.