Table 1

Participant characteristics by smoking status across quintiles of vegetable, fruit, and soy-rich dietary pattern score: Singapore Chinese Health Study

Ever smokers (n = 11,850)Never smokers (n = 31,326)
CharacteristicQ1Q3Q5Q1Q3Q5
Age (years)56.4 (7.7)57.0 (7.6)56.9 (7.8)55.0 (7.8)54.7 (7.5)54.2 (7.3)
BMI (kg/m2)22.5 (3.1)22.8 (3.3)22.8 (3.2)23.3 (3.3)23.2 (3.1)23.0 (3.2)
Any physical activity (% ever)18.228.336.318.928.236.8
Education (% secondary or greater)23.528.735.324.931.038.1
Female (%)13.215.616.368.474.474.5
Hypertension (%)14.118.919.020.020.920.3
Dietary intakes
 Total energy (kcal/day)1,526 (532)1,703 (517)2,098 (563)1,271 (446)1,443 (421)1,830 (494)
 Carbohydrate (% energy)60.4 (8.1)59.2 (7.1)56.0 (7.2)61.6 (7.5)59.5 (6.6)56.4 (6.8)
 Fat (% energy)22.3 (5.9)24.6 (5.3)27.9 (5.2)22.8 (5.7)25.1 (4.9)28.4 (4.9)
 Saturated fat (% energy)8.4 (2.6)8.8 (2.4)9.6 (2.6)8.4 (2.6)8.8 (2.4)9.6 (2.5)
 Monounsaturated fat (% energy)7.7 (2.2)8.3 (2.0)9.3 (2.0)7.8 (2.1)8.5 (1.9)9.4 (1.9)
 Polyunsaturated (% energy)4.0 (1.3)4.8 (1.6)5.9 (2.0)4.3 (1.4)5.2 (1.7)6.2 (2.2)
 Omega-3 fatty acids (g/day)0.7 (0.3)0.9 (0.4)1.3 (0.5)0.6 (0.3)0.8 (0.3)1.2 (0.5)
 Omega-6 fatty acids (g/day)5.9 (2.9)8.0 (3.6)12.2 (5.3)5.4 (2.6)7.3 (3.1)11.4 (5.1)
 Protein (% energy)14.1 (2.5)14.9 (2.3)15.6 (2.4)14.5 (2.4)15.3 (2.3)15.9 (2.4)
 Soy protein (% total protein)6.8 (4.9)9.1 (5.3)12.6 (7.4)7.6 (5.4)9.6 (5.4)13.2 (7.4)
 Fiber (g/1,000 kcal)5.7 (1.7)7.6 (2.0)9.3 (2.3)6.6 (1.9)8.5 (2.2)10.4 (2.6)
 Starch (g/1,000 kcal)113.6 (26.0)107.0 (21.8)92.6 (20.3)116.0 (24.5)105.2 (20.7)89.6 (19.6)
  • All values are mean (SD) except percentages (%).