Table 2

Participant characteristics by smoking status across quintiles of dim sum and meat-rich dietary pattern score: Singapore Chinese Health Study

Ever smokers (n = 11,850)Never smokers (n = 31,326)
CharacteristicQ1Q3Q5Q1Q3Q5
Age (years)61.0 (7.2)57.2 (7.6)54.5 (7.3)56.9 (7.8)54.2 (7.2)52.3 (6.6)
BMI (kg/m2)22.6 (3.2)22.7 (3.2)22.7 (3.2)23.1 (3.1)23.2 (3.2)23.2 (3.3)
Any physical activity (% ever)28.525.225.929.727.330.1
Education (% secondary or greater)17.425.635.224.130.143.4
Female (%)29.514.68.682.674.460.3
Hypertension (%)20.117.614.622.619.818.3
Dietary intakes
 Total energy (kcal/day)1,313 (411)1,529 (411)2,176 (560)1,244 (368)1,474 (398)2,023 (518)
 Carbohydrate (% energy)64.3 (6.9)60.5 (6.9)54.8 (6.7)62.8 (6.7)58.9 (6.5)54.4 (6.2)
 Fat (% energy)21.2 (5.5)23.2 (5.3)27.6 (5.2)22.8 (5.2)25.5 (5.0)29.3 (4.7)
 Saturated fat (% energy)7.3 (2.4)8.3 (2.3)10.3 (2.3)7.7 (2.4)8.9 (2.2)10.7 (2.2)
 Monounsaturated fat (% energy)7.0 (2.0)7.9 (1.9)9.5 (1.9)7.5 (1.9)8.6 (1.8)10.0 (1.8)
 Polyunsaturated (% energy)4.6 (2.0)4.6 (1.7)5.0 (1.5)5.1 (2.1)5.3 (1.9)5.6 (1.6)
 Omega-3 fatty acids (g/day)0.7 (0.4)0.8 (0.3)1.2 (0.4)0.7 (0.3)0.9 (0.4)1.2 (0.5)
 Omega-6 fatty acids (g/day)6.1 (3.8)6.9 (3.4)10.7 (4.5)6.4 (3.5)7.7 (3.8)11.2 (4.6)
 Protein (% energy)14.0 (2.6)14.7 (2.4)15.3 (2.2)14.6 (2.5)15.4 (2.3)16.0 (2.1)
 Soy protein (% total protein)10.1 (8.0)8.9 (6.3)8.8 (5.0)10.4 (7.6)9.9 (5.8)10.0 (5.3)
 Fiber (g/1,000 kcal)8.6 (2.8)7.2 (2.2)6.8 (1.9)9.6 (3.0)8.4 (2.5)7.9 (2.0)
 Starch (g/1,000 kcal)120.9 (24.0)110.9 (23.0)94.4 (20.0)113.0 (24.3)102.8 (21.5)89.9 (18.6)
  • All values are mean (SD) except percentages (%).