Table 3

HRs of type 2 diabetes according to quintile of dietary pattern score by smoking status: Singapore Chinese Health Study

VariableQ1Q2Q3Q4Q5P for trend
VFS pattern
 Ever smokers
  Incident cases/PY195/21,222155/14,915131/12,60499/10,661102/9,589
  Incidence rate*9210410493106
  Model I1.01.13 (0.91–1.39)1.12 (0.89–1.40)1.01 (0.79–1.30)1.20 (0.92–1.55)0.30
  Model II1.01.07 (0.87–1.33)1.07 (0.85–1.34)0.97 (0.76–1.25)1.17 (0.91–1.51)0.39
 Never smokers
  Incident cases/PY304/29,136334/35,322319/36,782298/38,079315/38,588
  Incidence rate*10495877882
  Model I1.00.91 (0.78–1.06)0.82 (0.70–0.96)0.73 (0.62–0.86)0.75 (0.64–0.90)0.0005
  Model II1.00.91 (0.78–1.06)0.82 (0.70–0.97)0.75 (0.64–0.89)0.77 (0.65–0.92)0.001
DSM pattern
 Ever smokers
  Incident cases/PY74/7,823127/11,649144/13,848160/16,142177/19,529
  Incidence rate*951091049991
  Model I1.01.13 (0.85–1.51)1.07 (0.80–1.43)1.02 (0.77–1.37)0.93 (0.68–1.27)0.25
  Model II1.01.11 (0.83–1.49)1.07 (0.80–1.42)1.03 (0.77–1.37)0.98 (0.72–1.35)0.55
 Never smokers
  Incident cases/PY356/42,120326/38,296332/35,496269/32,746287/29,249
  Incidence rate*8485948298
  Model I1.01.07 (0.92–1.24)1.25 (1.07–1.46)1.18 (0.99–1.39)1.47 (1.22–1.77)<0.0001
  Model II1.01.05 (0.90–1.22)1.19 (1.02–1.39)1.13 (0.95–1.34)1.38 (1.14–1.66)0.001
  • Data for all models are presented as HR (95% CI).

  • *Incidence rate is the incident of cases per 10,000 person-years (PY) of follow-up.

  • †Adjusted for age, sex, dialect, year of interview, education, physical activity, hypertension, energy intake.

  • ‡Adjusted for aforementioned variables and BMI (continuous and quadratic).

  • VFS, vegetable, fruit, and soy-rich dietary pattern; DSM, dim sum and meat-rich dietary pattern.