Table 1

Evidence for hyperglycemia screening

Considerable and growing disease burden• 387 million people living with diabetes worldwide (5)
• 28 million people living with diabetes in the U.S. (15)
• 316 million people living with IGT worldwide (5)
• 86 million people living with prediabetes in the U.S. (21)
• Annual diabetes expenditure has reached $612 billion worldwide (5)
• Annual diabetes expenditure has reached $176 billion in the U.S. (15)
Detectable early stage of the disease• 50% (range 30–80%) of diabetes is undiagnosed worldwide (5)
• 27% of diabetes is undiagnosed in the U.S. (6)
• Diabetes may be present for as long as 9–12 years prior to clinical diagnosis (1)
• IFG and IGT are asymptomatic, detectable, intermediate states of hyperglycemia (1)
• 90% of prediabetes is undiagnosed in the U.S. (1)
• Average duration of prediabetes is 7.8 years in men and 9.8 years in women (22)
• Estimated 4.7–12% annual incidence of progression from IGT and/or IFG to type 2 diabetes (23)
Evidence of benefit for early treatment of hyperglycemia• Reduction in incidence of CVD and mortality (4)
• Reduction in the incidence of retinopathy (9)
• Reduction in incidence of diabetes among people with IGT (24)
• Regression of prediabetes to normoglycemia (10)
• Reduction in cardiometabolic risk factors (11)
• Reduction in the development of metabolic syndrome (12)
• Reduction in the prevalence of urinary incontinence in women (13)
• Improvement in quality of life (14)
• Evidence for cost-effectiveness of early detection and treatment (1619)
• Limited psychological impact on participants (20)