Table 1

Characteristics of mothers with GDM vs. control mothers

Missing valuesControl mothersMothers with GDMPunivariatePadjusted1Padjusted2
n15890
Maternal age (years)0/033.1 ± 4.734.2 ± 4.90.104*0.4150.415
Maternal BMI at 12 weeks (kg/m2)0/025.2 ± 4.030.0 ± 7.9<0.001<0.001<0.001
Ethnicity0/00.7350.9010.901
 White108 (68.4%)58 (64.4%)
 Black31 (19.6%)23 (25.6%)
 Asian12 (7.6%)6 (6.7%)
 Other7 (4.4%)3 (3.3%)
Parity0/01.000
 Nulliparous67 (42.4%)38 (42.2%)
 Parous91 (57.6%)52 (57.8%)
Previous GDM0/0<0.001
 No158 (100%)69 (76.6%)
 Yes0 (0.0%)21 (23.3%)
Family history of diabetes0/0<0.0010.0370.037
 No141 (89.2%)55 (61.1%)
 Yes17 (10.8%)35 (38.9%)
Smoker0/00.7950.8840.884
 No148 (93.7%)83 (92.2%)
 Yes10 (6.3%)7 (7.8%)
Gestational age at booking (days)0/087.5 ± 3.087.4 ± 3.60.916*0.8860.886
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)37/20112.5 ± 15.8118.5 ± 11.60.003*0.0390.039
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)37/2070.2 ± 8.571.7 ± 7.20.218*0.1670.167
Sex1/00.3560.7300.730
 Female77 (49.0%)50 (55.6%)
 Male80 (51.0%)40 (44.4%)
Birth weight (g)1/03,403.1 ± 571.43,283.6 ± 481.90.081*0.3880.388
Gestation at OGTT (weeks)028.0 ± 4.6
OGTT
 Fasting/2-h glucose (mmol/L)0/35.3 ± 1.8/9.1 ± 1.8
 HbA1c (%)115.8 ± 0.9
Total cholesterol (mmol/L)0/04.62 ± 0.764.86 ± 0.900.033*0.7800.780
HDL cholesterol (mmol/L)^0/01.74 (0.35)1.58 (0.38) 0.001*0.0090.009
Triglyceride (mmol/L)^0/01.20 (0.95–1.56)1.38 (1.08–2.01)0.002*0.4230.423
25-OH-D (ng/mL)0/019.0 ± 10.718.9 ± 10.70.874 0.7840.784
25-OH-D (nmol/L)0/047.6 ± 26.747.2 ± 26.70.8630.7820.782
Deficient 25-OH-D (<25 nmol/L)
 No0/0122 (77.2%)72 (80.0%)0.6350.8640.864
 Yes36 (22.8%)18 (20.0%)
Insufficient 25-OH-D (<50 nmol/L)0/00.5020.742 0.742
 No68 (43.0%)34 (37.8%)
 Yes90 (57.0%)56 (62.2%)
Months of sampling0/06.4 ± 3.36.8 ± 3.20.426* 0.3140.314
  • Data are means ± SD, median (interquartile range), or n (%). Padjusted1, logistic regression adjusted for maternal age, BMI, gestational age at sampling, smoking, ethnicity, parity, conception status, and previous GDM; 25-OH-D levels additionally adjusted for month of sampling. Padjusted2, women without previous GDM (nulliparous or previous pregnancies without GDM) logistic regression adjusted for maternal age, BMI, gestational age at sampling, smoking, ethnicity, parity, and conception status; 25-OH-D levels additionally adjusted for month of sampling.

  • *t test.

  • †Wilcoxon test.

  • ‡Fisher exact test.

  • ^Log-transformed for regression analysis.