Table 2

Cross-sectional analysis predicting the natural log of glucose, insulin, and HOMA from each sleep variable separately stratified by diabetes*

VariableModel 1 (unadjusted)Model 2 (adjusted)
No diabetesDiabetesNo diabetesDiabetes
Outcome: ln(glucose)
 Sleep duration (h)
  β–0.003–0.0220.0060.033
  95% CI–0.011 to 0.005–0.084 to 0.040–0.003 to 0.015–0.032 to 0.097
  P0.460.480.200.31
 Sleep fragmentation (per 10%)
  β0.0080.1330.0010.089
  95% CI–0.004 to 0.0190.042–0.223–0.010 to 0.0120.006–0.172
  P0.1990.0050.890.036
 Insomnia
  β0.0010.285–0.0010.204
  95% CI–0.022 to 0.0240.069–0.501–0.025 to 0.023–0.006 to 0.414
  P0.940.0110.930.056
 Frequent snoring
  β0.031–0.0880.014–0.148
  95% CI0.008–0.055–0.290 to 0.113–0.009 to 0.037–0.323 to 0.026
  P0.0080.380.230.092
Outcome: ln(insulin)
 Sleep duration (h)
  β–0.059–0.0420.0110.051
  95% CI–0.111 to –0.007–0.209 to 0.123–0.038 to 0.0600.181 to 0.078
  P0.0250.610.660.42
 Sleep fragmentation (per 10%)
  β0.0560.224–0.0150.264
  95% CI–0.009 to 0.1210.010–0.438–0.073 to 0.0420.086–0.441
  P0.0930.0400.600.005
 Insomnia
  β–0.0590.216-0.1450.389
  95% CI–0.203 to 0.085–0.133 to 0.565–0.275 to −0.0140.068 to 0.710
  P0.420.220.0300.019
 Frequent snoring
  β0.2350.2080.0100.209
  95% CI0.073–0.397–0.215 to 0.631–0.133 to 0.153–0.117 to 0.535
  P0.0040.330.890.20
Outcome: ln(HOMA)
 Sleep duration (h)
  β–0.062–0.0650.017–0.019
  95% CI–0.118 to −0.007–0.228 to 0.097–0.036 to 0.070–0.164 to 0.126
  P0.0280.430.530.79
 Sleep fragmentation (per 10%)
  β0.0640.356–0.0150.353
  95% CI–0.007 to 0.1340.172–0.541–0.075 to 0.0460.197–0.508
  P0.077<0.0010.64<0.001
 Insomnia
  β–0.0580.501–0.1460.593
  95% CI–0.212 to 0.0960.123–0.880–0.284 to −0.0080.284 to 0.902
  P0.460.0110.038<0.001
 Frequent snoring
  β0.2660.1200.0240.061
  95% CI0.096−0.437–0.378 to 0.618–0.128 to 0.176–0.307 to 0.428
  P0.0020.630.760.74
  • Boldface type indicates statistical significance.

  • *Each sleep-related predictor was included in a separate regression model.

  • †Model 2 is adjusted for age, race, sex, BMI, education, and income.