Table 1

Demographic characteristics of study participants by sex and ethnic group

MenWomen*PANOVA menPANOVA women
ChineseMalaysAsian-IndiansChineseMalaysAsian-Indians
Age (years)50.4 ± 12.350.3 ± 11.552.9 ± 11.749.1 ± 11.649.5 ± 11.651.5 ± 10.60.0010.001
BMI (kg/m2)23.5 ± 3.425.3 ± 4.024.8 ± 3.722.4 ± 3.826.9 ± 4.926.6 ± 4.6<0.001<0.001
Waist circumference (cm)87.4 ± 9.390.3 ± 10.293.2 ± 10.877.2 ± 9.486.0 ± 11.588.3 ± 10.8<0.001<0.001
BP (mmHg)
 Systolic134.3 ± 18.8135.7 ± 18.6133.3 ± 17.9127.5 ± 21.5139.1 ± 22.9134.6 ± 24.40.173<0.001
 Diastolic81.3 ± 10.581.89 ± 9.881.4 ± 10.073.44 ± 9.777.39 ± 10.876.12 ± 10.30.760<0.001
Total cholesterol (mmol/L)5.15 ± 0.95.45 ± 1.005.12 ± 0.925.22 ± 0.945.50 ± 1.025.22 ± 0.93<0.001<0.001
Triglycerides (mmol/L)1.50 ± 0.951.68 ± 0.911.55 ± 0.811.14 ± 0.711.40 ± 1.451.35 ± 0.66<0.001<0.001
HDL-C (mmol/L)1.32 ± 0.291.23 ± 0.271.15 ± 0.261.61 ± 0.361.48 ± 0.311.32 ± 0.29<0.001<0.001
LDL-C (mmol/L)3.14 ± 0.813.45 ± 0.933.26 ± 0.843.09 ± 0.833.38 ± 0.993.29 ± 0.77<0.001<0.001
Fasting glucose (mmol/L)5.15 ± 1.235.52 ± 2.265.78 ± 2.104.85 ± 1.115.38 ± 2.005.65 ± 2.20<0.001<0.001
Fasting insulin (μU/L)7.44 ± 6.518.73 ± 7.5711.45 ± 11.137.01 ± 5.049.23 ± 5.6012.00 ± 8.82<0.001<0.001
HOMA-IR1.76 ± 1.722.23 ± 2.543.02 ± 3.261.58 ± 1.432.28 ± 1.843.18 ± 3.18<0.001<0.001
CRP (mg/L)2.11 ± 5.892.82 ± 4.233.25 ± 7.102.02 ± 4.333.64 ± 4.895.71 ± 8.360.001<0.001
Total adiponectin (μg/mL)3.10 ± 1.792.97 ± 1.802.97 ± 1.754.60 ± 2.504.28 ± 2.523.83 ± 1.950.268<0.001
CVD (%)5.15.113.41.42.03.9<0.0010.003
Diabetes (%)7.310.719.85.012.418.6<0.001<0.001
Statin use (%)10.410.518.06.89.511.5<0.0010.003
Aspirin use (%)5.35.113.71.42.03.9<0.0010.003
Current smokers (%)19.53421.82.62.70.7<0.0010.001
  • Data are expressed as mean ± SD or as % (proportion to the group). The χ2 test was used for categorical variables to compare differences between the ethnic groups. For men, n = 1,390 Chinese, 428 Malays, and 388 Asian-Indians. For women, n = 1,745 Chinese, 444 Malays, and 409 Asian-Indians. HOMA-IR, homeostasis model assessment-IR. CVD was defined as history of coronary heart disease, stroke, or transient ischemic attack. Diabetes was defined as history of diabetes with or without treatment.

  • *P value for comparison between the ethnic groups in men;

  • P value for comparison between the ethnic groups in women.