Table 1

Characteristics and outcomes of patients with type 2 diabetes

Type 2 diabetic patients with coded HEsType 2 diabetic patients without coded HEs
N = 27,065 (3.1%)N = 833,780 (96.9%)P value
Age (years), mean (SD)64.0 (13.2)60.6 (13.0)<0.001
Female (%)47.748.7
Insurance plan type (%)<0.001
 Capitated payment arrangements18.216.4
 Fee-for-service80.782.2
 Unknown1.11.4
Geographic region (%)<0.001
 Northeast7.58.8
 North Central37.232.8
 South35.641.8
 West19.416.2
 Unknown0.30.4
Risk factors for coronary artery disease (%)
 Hypercholesterolemia1.82.1<0.001
 Hypertension28.123.0<0.001
 Peripheral vascular disease6.41.9<0.001
 Chronic kidney disease9.02.6<0.001
Diabetes complications (%)
 Diabetic peripheral neuropathy9.82.7<0.001
 Diabetic retinopathy5.61.7<0.001
 Leg and foot amputation1.10.1<0.001
Medical encounters with a diagnosis of diabetes, mean (SD)6.2 (8.3)2.9 (3.7)<0.001
 Median42
Deyo–Charlson comorbidity index, mean (SD)2.5 (2.0)1.6 (1.4)<0.001
 Median21
AHRQ comorbidity index, mean (SD)0.8 (1.3)0.5 (0.9)<0.001
 Median00
Cardiovascular medication (%)
 Antiplatelet agents17.19.3<0.001
 ACE inhibitors47.040.6<0.001
 β-Blockers43.432.5<0.001
 Calcium channel blockers29.123.3<0.001
 Antihyperlipidemic drugs69.364.2<0.001
 Hypotensive agents12.06.9<0.001
 Anticoagulants10.46.2<0.001
Total expenditures, mean (SD)$21,408 ($40,081)$11,660 ($24,048)<0.001
 Median$10,560$5,919
Diabetes treatment allowing for 15-day gap (%)<0.001
 Monotherapy with oral antidiabetic agent22.034.0
 ≥2 oral antidiabetic agents14.816.5
 Oral antidiabetic agent(s) + one insulin type15.05.7
 Oral antidiabetic agent(s) + two or more insulin type(s)5.71.6
 One insulin type only11.03.0
 ≥2 insulin types only7.41.8
 <45 days oral antidiabetic agent(s)4.16.1
 No oral antidiabetic agent(s) and no insulin use20.131.2
ACVE evaluation period (%)
 Coronary artery bypass graft0.300.10<0.001
 Revascularization0.400.20<0.001
 Percutaneous coronary intervention2.301.20<0.001
 Incident UA1.500.70<0.001
 AMI2.600.80<0.001
 Any ACVE5.302.20<0.001
 Inpatient death related to ACVE0.200.10<0.001
ACVE baseline period (%)
 Coronary artery bypass graft0.300.200.001
 Revascularization0.400.20<0.001
 Percutaneous coronary intervention2.301.30<0.001
 UA1.800.90<0.001
 AMI1.700.80<0.001
 Any ACVE4.602.30<0.001
  • AHRQ, Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality.