Table 1

Prevalences and prevalence ratios of cancer according to diabetes status among men and women, BRFSS 2009

Cancer site/tractCancer typeCrude prevalence, % (SE)Prevalence ratio (95% CI)
DiabetesNo diabetesPModel 1*Model 2Model 3
Men, N19,719131,740
All cancers15.89 (0.45)7.49 (0.11)<0.00012.1 (2.0–2.3)1.1 (1.0–1.1)1.1 (1.1–1.2)
 Breast cancer0.10 (0.04)0.02 (0.01)0.0295.2 (2.1–12.7)3.0 (1.2–7.1)1.5 (0.4–4.8)
 Male reproductive5.35 (0.31)2.06 (0.06)<0.00012.6 (2.3–3.0)1.1 (1.0–1.3)1.1 (1.0–1.3)
Prostate5.11 (0.31)1.89 (0.05)<0.00012.7 (2.4–3.1)1.2 (1.0–1.3)1.1 (1.0–1.3)
Testicular0.27 (0.06)0.18 (0.03)0.201.5 (0.9–2.5)1.2 (0.7–2.1)1.1 (0.5–2.2)
 Head/neck0.58 (0.09)0.27 (0.02)0.00062.2 (1.6–3.1)1.2 (0.8–1.6)1.2 (0.8–1.7)
Head and neck0.11 (0.04)0.06 (0.01)0.181.9 (0.9–3.8)1.0 (0.5–2.0)1.2 (0.6–2.5)
Oral0.07 (0.03)0.05 (0.01)0.431.5 (0.6–3.4)0.9 (0.4–1.8)0.9 (0.4–2.1)
Pharyngeal0.14 (0.04)0.06 (0.01)0.0662.2 (1.2–4.2)1.0 (0.5–1.9)1.0 (0.5–1.9)
Thyroid0.26 (0.07)0.10 (0.01)0.0142.7 (1.5–4.8)1.6 (0.9–2.8)1.4 (0.8–2.6)
 Gastrointestinal1.90 (0.17)0.58 (0.03)<0.00013.2 (2.7–4.0)1.5 (1.2–1.8)1.4 (1.2–1.8)
Colon1.37 (0.15)0.42 (0.02)<0.00013.2 (2.5–4.1)1.5 (1.1–1.8)1.3 (1.0–1.7)
Esophageal0.03 (0.01)0.03 (0.01)0.951.0 (0.5–2.1)0.4 (0.2–0.9)0.6 (0.3–1.4)
Liver0.12 (0.04)0.03 (0.01)0.0223.7 (1.8–7.6)1.9 (0.9–4.0)1.8 (0.9–3.4)
Pancreatic0.16 (0.07)0.02 (0.01)0.0347.0 (2.8–17.3)3.4 (1.4–8.3)4.6 (1.8–11.7)
Rectal0.14 (0.04)0.03 (0.01)0.0034.7 (2.6–8.8)2.1 (1.1–4.0)2.2 (1.0–4.7)
Stomach0.09 (0.03)0.04 (0.01)0.122.2 (1.0–4.5)1.1 (0.5–2.2)1.0 (0.4–2.5)
 Leukemia/lymphoma0.68 (0.10)0.44 (0.04)0.0261.6 (1.1–2.2)1.0 (0.7–1.4)1.1 (0.8–1.6)
Hodgkin’s lymphoma0.32 (0.08)0.14 (0.02)0.0232.4 (1.4–4.1)1.7 (0.9–3.0)1.8 (0.9–3.4)
Leukemia0.15 (0.04)0.13 (0.02)0.611.2 (0.7–2.1)0.7 (0.4–1.2)0.8 (0.5–1.6)
Non–Hodgkin’s lymphoma0.21 (0.05)0.17 (0.03)0.531.2 (0.7–2.2)0.8 (0.5–1.4)0.8 (0.4–1.4)
 Skin5.57 (0.27)3.09 (0.06)<0.00011.8 (1.6–2.0)0.9 (0.8–1.0)1.0 (0.9–1.1)
Melanoma2.01 (0.15)0.99 (0.04)<0.00012.0 (1.7–2.4)1.0 (0.8–1.2)1.1 (0.9–1.3)
Other skin3.71 (0.23)2.14 (0.05)<0.00011.7 (1.5–2.0)0.9 (0.8–1.0)1.0 (0.9–1.1)
 Lung0.38 (0.06)0.19 (0.02)0.00362.0 (1.3–2.9)0.9 (0.6–1.3)0.8 (0.5–1.4)
 Urinary1.35 (0.14)0.33 (0.02)<0.00014.1 (3.2–5.1)1.8 (1.4–2.3)1.7 (1.3–2.2)
Bladder0.86 (0.11)0.22 (0.02)<0.00014.0 (3.0–5.3)1.7 (1.3–2.3)1.7 (1.2–2.2)
Kidney0.50 (0.09)0.12 (0.01)<0.00014.3 (2.9–6.4)2.2 (1.4–3.3)1.9 (1.2–3.0)
 Other sites1.53 (0.15)0.70 (0.04)<0.00012.2 (1.8–2.7)1.2 (1.0–1.5)1.2 (1.0–1.6)
HeartRare§Rare
Bone0.11 (0.04)0.06 (0.02)0.281.9 (0.7–4.9)1.6 (0.7–3.9)1.5 (0.6–3.7)
Brain0.07 (0.03)0.04 (0.01)0.331.7 (0.7–3.9)1.6 (0.7–4.0)2.2 (0.9–5.6)
NeuroblastomaRareRare
Other1.36 (0.14)0.60 (0.03)<0.00012.3 (1.8–2.8)1.2 (0.9–1.5)1.2 (1.0–1.5)
Women, N28,699217,625
All cancers17.08 (0.39)10.37 (0.11)<0.00011.7 (1.6–1.7)1.1 (1.0–1.1)1.1 (1.1–1.2)
 Breast5.52 (0.24)2.87 (0.06)<0.00011.9 (1.8–2.1)1.1 (1.0–1.2)1.1 (1.0–1.3)
 Reproductive4.08 (0.25)2.22 (0.06)<0.00011.8 (1.6–2.1)1.5 (1.3–1.7)1.3 (1.2–1.6)
Cervical1.87 (0.15)1.36 (0.05)0.00111.4 (1.2–1.6)1.3 (1.1–1.6)1.2 (1.0–1.5)
Endometrial1.45 (0.17)0.45 (0.02)<0.00013.2 (2.5–4.1)2.0 (1.6–2.6)1.6 (1.2–2.0)
Ovarian0.87 (0.13)0.44 (0.03)0.00112.0 (1.4–2.7)1.5 (1.1–2.1)1.4 (0.9–2.0)
 Head/neck0.67 (0.08)0.42 (0.02)0.00231.6 (1.2–2.1)1.1 (0.8–1.4)1.1 (0.8–1.5)
Head and neck0.07 (0.02)0.05 (0.01)0.381.4 (0.7–2.9)0.8 (0.4–1.7)1.1 (0.5–2.2)
Oral0.07 (0.03)0.03 (0.01)0.212.0 (0.8–4.7)1.1 (0.4–2.6)1.0 (0.3–3.0)
Pharyngeal0.06 (0.02)0.03 (0.005)0.182.2 (0.9–5.0)1.3 (0.5–3.1)1.3 (0.6–3.0)
Thyroid0.48 (0.07)0.31 (0.02)0.0191.5 (1.1–2.1)1.1 (0.8–1.5)1.1 (0.8–1.6)
 Gastrointestinal1.42 (0.12)0.59 (0.03)<0.00012.4 (2.0–2.9)1.3 (1.1–1.5)1.2 (0.9–1.5)
Colon1.12 (0.10)0.47 (0.02)<0.00012.4 (2.0–2.9)1.3 (1.0–1.6)1.1 (0.9–1.4)
EsophagealRare0.02 (0.003)
Liver0.10 (0.04)0.02 (0.01)0.0714.7 (1.7–12.7)3.2 (1.1–9.3)2.9 (0.9–9.6)
Pancreatic0.08 (0.03)0.02 (0.005)0.0323.6 (1.6–7.8)2.0 (0.9–4.4)2.5 (0.9–6.8)
Rectal0.08 (0.03)0.04 (0.01)0.112.2 (1.1–4.7)1.2 (0.6–2.4)1.2 (0.5–2.8)
Stomach0.04 (0.01)0.03 (0.01)0.401.4 (0.7–3.0)0.8 (0.4–1.7)0.9 (0.4–2.0)
 Leukemia/lymphoma0.63 (0.09)0.36 (0.02)0.00191.8 (1.3–2.4)1.1 (0.9–1.5)1.2 (0.8–1.6)
Hodgkin’s lymphoma0.17 (0.05)0.12 (0.01)0.341.4 (0.8–2.5)1.0 (0.5–1.8)1.0 (0.5–1.8)
Leukemia0.30 (0.06)0.10 (0.01)0.00153.1 (1.9–4.9)2.0 (1.3–3.4)2.3 (1.3–4.2)
Non–Hodgkin’s lymphoma0.16 (0.03)0.14 (0.01)0.511.2 (0.8–1.8)0.7 (0.5–1.1)0.7 (0.4–1.1)
 Skin4.35 (0.20)3.25 (0.06)<0.00011.3 (1.2–1.5)0.8 (0.7–0.9)1.0 (0.9–1.2)
Melanoma1.35 (0.12)0.90 (0.03)0.00041.5 (1.2–1.8)0.9 (0.8–1.1)1.2 (1.0–1.5)
Other skin3.08 (0.16)2.39 (0.05)0.00011.3 (1.2–1.4)0.7 (0.7–0.8)1.0 (0.9–1.1)
 Lung0.37 (0.05)0.24 (0.02)0.03141.5 (1.1–2.2)0.8 (0.6–1.2)0.7 (0.4–1.1)
 Urinary0.43 (0.06)0.19 (0.01)0.00022.3 (1.7–3.2)1.2 (0.9–1.7)1.2 (0.8–1.6)
Bladder0.19 (0.04)0.10 (0.01)0.0092.0 (1.3–3.0)1.0 (0.7–1.5)0.9 (0.6–1.3)
Kidney0.24 (0.05)0.09 (0.01)0.00712.6 (1.6–4.4)1.6 (1.0–2.6)1.6 (0.9–2.7)
 Other sites1.60 (0.15)0.84 (0.04)<0.00011.9 (1.6–2.3)1.3 (1.0–1.5)1.2 (0.9–1.4)
HeartRareRare
Bone0.05 (0.02)0.05 (0.01)0.941.0 (0.5–2.1)0.9 (0.4–1.7)0.9 (0.4–2.0)
Brain0.04 (0.02)0.06 (0.01)0.540.7 (0.3–2.1)0.8 (0.3–2.1)0.7 (0.2–2.8)
NeuroblastomaRareRare
Other1.50 (0.14)0.73 (0.03)<0.00012.1 (1.7–2.5)1.3 (1.1–1.6)1.2 (1.0–1.5)
  • *Model 1: unadjusted.

  • †Model 2: adjusted for age (years, continuous) only.

  • ‡Model 3: adjusted for age (years, continuous), race/ethnicity (non–Hispanic white, non–Hispanic black, Hispanic, other), health insurance coverage (any vs. none), smoking status (current smoker, former smoker, never smoked), heavy drinking (yes, consuming more than two drinks per day among men and more than one drink per day among women vs. no), BMI (kg/m2, continuous), and physical inactivity (yes vs. no).

  • §Rare: prevalence estimate is between 0 and 0.01%. Statistical tests are not provided due to insufficient data.