Table 2

Percentage of participants who are vitamin D [25(OH)D] insufficient (<30 ng/mL), deficient (<20 ng/mL), or severely deficient (<15 ng/mL), and relative risk of PE associated with low vitamin D levels (<30, <20, and <15 ng/mL) in diabetic participants

Vitamin D level (ng/mL)Visit 1Visit 2Visit 3
DM PE+ (%)DM PE− (%)DM− (%)RR (95% CI)DM PE+ (%)DM PE− (%)DM−RR (95% CI)DM PE+ (%)DM PE− (%)DM− (%)RR (95% CI)
<309687842.1 (0.4–11.8)9590791.4 (0.3–7.9)9691751.5 (0.3–7.7)
<207865372.2 (0.4–12.3)6070531.8 (0.3–10.8)6152451.9 (0.3–11.0)
<15392202.5 (0.4–14.2)3045261.8 (0.3–11.2)3930302.1 (0.4–12.4)
  • PE+: PE (n = 23); PE−: no PE (n = 24); DM−: nondiabetic, non-PE pregnant control subjects (n = 20). Reference group for relative risk in all cases comprises women in whom vitamin D level is sufficient (>30 ng/mL).

  • RR, relative risk.