Table 2

Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic outcomes

VariableGastric bypass subjectsControl subjectsMean difference (95% CI)P
n1616
Pharmacokinetic outcomes
 AUC0–∞ (µg/h/mL)13.7 (6.0)11.4 (3.6)2.3 (−1.3 to 5.9)0.20
 Bioavailability (%)41.8 (16.2)*27.8 (10.4)14.0 (4.1–23.9)0.007
 AUC0–24 h (µg/h/mL)13.4 (5.7)11.1 (3.6)2.2 (−1.3 to 5.6)0.20
Cmax (µg/mL)2.0 (0.86)1.8 (0.61)0.2 (−0.3 to 0.8)0.32
Tmax (h)3.0 (1.5–3.0)3.0 (1.5–3.0)0 (0)0.89
 Half-life (h)3.9 (0.74)4.0 (0.87)−0.1 (−0.7 to 0.5)0.66
 Urinary recovery (0–24 h) (mg)326 (126)217 (81)140 (41–239)0.007
 Weight-normalized urinary recovery (0–24 h; mg/kg)3.1 (1.2)*2.0 (0.78)1.5 (0.5–2.5)0.003
 Renal clearance (mL/min)461 (199)*337 (131)125 (1.5–248)0.047
 Weight-normalized renal clearance (mL/min/kg)4.3 (1.6)*3.0 (1.0)1.3 (0.3–2.3)0.009
 Weight-normalized volume of distribution (L/kg)1.4 (0.4)1.0 (0.4)0.4 (0.1–0.7)0.02
Pharmacodynamic outcome
 AUC glucose0–8 h (mmol/mL/h)35.8 (3.7)41.7 (4.1)5.9 (3.1–8.8)0.0002
  • Data are means (SD), unless otherwise indicated.

  • *Sample size was 15. One sample was lost.

  • †Numbers are median (range). Mann-Whitney U statistic used.