Table 4

Criteria for testing for diabetes in asymptomatic adult individuals

  1. Testing should be considered in all adults who are overweight (BMI ≥25 kg/m2*) and have additional risk factors:

    • physical inactivity

    • first-degree relative with diabetes

    • high-risk race/ethnicity (e.g., African American, Latino, Native American, Asian American, Pacific Islander)

    • women who delivered a baby weighing >9 lb or were diagnosed with GDM

    • hypertension (≥140/90 mmHg or on therapy for hypertension)

    • HDL cholesterol level <35 mg/dl (0.90 mmol/l) and/or a triglyceride level >250 mg/dl (2.82 mmol/l)

    • women with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS)

    • A1C ≥5.7%, IGT, or IFG on previous testing

    • other clinical conditions associated with insulin resistance (e.g., severe obesity, acanthosis nigricans)

    • history of CVD

  2. In the absence of the above criteria, testing for diabetes should begin at age 45 years.

  3. If results are normal, testing should be repeated at least at 3-year intervals, with consideration of more frequent testing depending on initial results and risk status.

  • *At-risk BMI may be lower in some ethnic groups.