Table 1

Clinical features of the study population according to A1C categories at baseline

<5.7≥5.7 to ≤6.4>6.4
(n = 893)(n = 247)(n = 16)P
Anthropometrics
 Age (years)13.2 ± 2.8413.1 ± 2.7613.5 ± 2.330.81
 Sex (M/F) (%)41/5942/5828/720.70
 Race (Caucasian/African American/Hispanic) (%)42/29/2918/54/2828/56/17<0.001
 BMI z score2.38 ± 0.382.44 ± 0.382.52 ± 0.510.01
 BMI (kg/m2)#35.43 (34.98–35.88)35.88 (35.03–36.73)38.98 (35.73–42.23)0.08
Glucose metabolism
 Fasting glucose (mg/dL)*92.07 (91.52–92.62)96.83 (95.74–97.94)106.64 (102.03–111.47)<0.001
 2-h Glucose (mg/dL)*117.58 (116.05–119.13)130.94 (127.70–134.26)188.09 (170.61–207.36)<0.001
 Fasting insulin (μU/L)*29.10 (28.15–30.08)33.40 (31.36–35.56)41.81 (32.77–53.34)<0.001
 WBISI*1.60 (1.54–1.66)1.35 (1.26–1.45)1.06 (0.81–1.39)<0.001
 IGI*3.73 (3.55–3.92)3.79 (3.46–4.16)1.82 (1.28–2.61)0.13
 DI*5.99 (5.73–6.27)5.20 (4.77–5.67)1.60 (1.14–2.25)<0.001
 HbA1c (%)*5.24 (5.22–5.26)5.88 (5.84–5.92)6.79 (6.62–6.97)<0.001
Lipids
 Triglycerides (mg/dL)*98.17 (94.49–102.01)86.36 (80.14–93.05)88.96 (65.41–120.98)0.0040
 Cholesterol (mg/dL)*156.27 (154.14–158.44)152.34 (148.31–156.48)156.36 (141.00–173.38)0.16
 HDL (mg/dL)*41.25 (40.62–41.90)42.22 (40.96–43.52)38.08 (33.76–42.97)0.57
 LDL (mg/dL)*90.01 (88.18–91.88)87.16 (83.74–90.72)91.83 (78.36–107.62)0.27
  • Mean and SD are presented for age, BMI, and z score.

  • #Adjusted for age, sex, and ethnicity.

  • *Log transformed and adjusted for age, sex, ethnicity, and BMI z score, and shown as geometric means and 95% CI. P values are from χ2 test for nominal variables or testing for linear trend for continuous variables across A1C categories.