Table 1

Population description by baseline A1C categories

OverallBaseline A1CP
<6.06.0–6.97.0–7.98.0–8.99.0–9.910–10.9≥11
n71,09210,92132,12517,4545,9622,3721,1251,133
Demographics
 Age categories (years)
  60–6933,374 (46.9)4,665 (42.7)13,863 (43.2)8,592 (49.2)3,323 (55.7)1,460 (61.6)722 (64.2)749 (66.1)<0.001
  70–7927,323 (38.4)4,349 (39.8)13,051 (40.6)6,573 (37.7)2,028 (34.0)701 (29.6)313 (27.8)308 (27.2)
  ≥8010,395 (14.6)1,907 (17.5)5,211 (16.2)2,289 (13.1)611 (10.3)211 (8.9)90 (8.0)76 (6.7)
 Female33,708 (47.4)4,567 (41.8)15,588 (48.5)8,516 (48.8)2,862 (48.0)1,082 (45.6)544 (48.4)549 (48.5)<0.001
 Race/ethnicity
  Non-Hispanic white38,465 (54.1)6,992 (64.0)17,957 (55.9)8,748 (50.1)2,758 (46.3)1,070 (45.1)506 (45.0)434 (38.3)<0.001
  Black6,851 (9.6)785 (7.2)2,865 (8.9)1,857 (10.6)691 (11.6)290 (12.2)159 (14.1)204 (18.0)
  Hispanic7,657 (10.8)1,014 (9.3)3,269 (10.2)1,975 (11.3)767 (12.9)304 (12.8)152 (13.5)176 (15.5)
  Asian/Pacific Islander8,423 (11.9)826 (7.6)3,782 (11.8)2,396 (13.7)818 (13.7)320 (13.5)146 (13.0)135 (11.9)
  Other/mixed8,107 (11.4)1,077 (9.9)3,538 (11.0)2,126 (12.2)781 (13.1)318 (13.4)132 (11.7)135 (11.9)
  Missing1,589 (2.2)227 (2.1)714 (2.2)352 (2.0)147 (2.5)70 (3.0)30 (2.7)49 (4.3)
Clinical characteristics
 Duration of diabetes (years)
  0–430,589 (43.0)7,084 (64.9)15,810 (49.2)5,054 (29.0)1,373 (23.0)573 (24.2)301 (26.8)394 (34.8)<0.001
  5–917,116 (24.1)2,034 (18.6)7,520 (23.4)4,666 (26.7)1,593 (26.7)684 (28.8)322 (28.6)297 (26.2)
  10–1411,503 (16.2)959 (8.8)4,412 (13.7)3,625 (20.8)1,435 (24.1)558 (23.5)267 (23.7)247 (21.8)
  15–194,985 (7.0)348 (3.2)1,835 (5.7)1,722 (9.9)645 (10.8)234 (9.9)98 (8.7)103 (9.1)
  ≥206,891 (9.7)496 (4.5)2,548 (7.9)2,387 (13.7)916 (15.4)323 (13.6)127 (11.3)92 (8.1)
 Systolic blood pressure
  ≥130 mmHg41,127 (57.9)5,967 (54.6)18,381 (57.2)10,428 (59.8)3,548 (60.1)1,434 (60.5)686 (61.0)647 (57.1)<0.001
  <130 mmHg25,737 (36.2)4,262 (39.0)11,924 (37.1)6,008 (34.4)1,986 (33.3)775 (32.7)366 (32.5)416 (36.7)
  Missing4,228 (5.9)692 (6.3)1,820 (5.7)1,018 (5.8)392 (6.6)163 (6.9)73 (6.5)70 (6.2)
 LDL cholesterol
  ≥100 mg/dL34,517 (48.6)5,300 (48.5)15,210 (47.3)8,258 (47.3)3,065 (51.4)1,316 (55.5)648 (57.6)720 (63.5)<0.001
  <100 mg/dL32,608 (45.9)4,901 (44.9)15,223 (47.4)8,311 (47.6)2,568 (43.1)904 (38.1)393 (34.9)308 (27.2)
  Missing3,967 (5.6)720 (6.6)1,692 (5.3)885 (5.1)329 (5.5)152 (6.4)84 (7.5)105 (9.3)
 Triglycerides
  ≥200 mg/dL19,947 (28.1)2,279 (20.9)8,570 (26.7)5,395 (30.9)1,967 (33.0)852 (35.9)441 (39.2)443 (39.1)<0.01
  <200 mg/dL45,589 (64.1)7,669 (70.2)21,229 (66.1)10,804 (61.9)3,512 (58.9)1,292 (54.5)556 (49.4)527 (46.5)
  Missing5,556 (7.8)973 (8.9)2,326 (7.2)1,255 (7.2)483 (8.1)228 (9.6)128 (11.4)163 (14.4)
 Estimated GFR
  ≥906,444 (9.1)918 (8.4)2,554 (8.0)1,650 (9.5)667 (11.2)298 (12.6)164 (14.6)193 (17.0)<0.001
  60–8932,674 (46.0)4,941 (45.2)14,736 (45.9)8,112 (46.5)2,754 (46.2)1,095 (46.2)509 (45.2)527 (46.5)
  30–5922,754 (32.0)3,474 (31.8)10,703 (33.3)5,491 (31.5)1,810 (30.4)687 (29.0)309 (27.5)280 (24.7)
  15–291,770 (2.5)304 (2.8)795 (2.5)426 (2.4)142 (2.4)53 (2.2)25 (2.2)25 (2.2)
  <15194 (0.3)47 (0.4)94 (0.3)38 (0.2)10 (0.2)1 (<0.1)1 (<0.1)3 (0.3)
  Missing7,256 (10.2)1,237 (11.3)3,243 (10.1)1,737 (10.0)579 (5.3)238 (0.02)117 (1.1)105 (1.0)
 Albuminuria/proteinuria*
  Normal43,734 (61.5)7,235 (66.2)20,580 (64.1)10,325 (59.2)3,242 (54.4)1,209 (51.0)583 (51.8)559 (49.3)<0.001
  Microalbuminuria11,126 (15.7)1,362 (12.5)4,654 (14.5)2,974 (17.0)1,140 (19.1)515 (21.7)228 (20.3)253 (22.3)
  Overt proteinuria452 (5.9)452 (4.1)1,524 (4.7)1,172 (6.7)538 (9.0)247 (10.4)125 (11.1)115 (10.2)
  Missing12,059 (17.0)1,872 (17.1)5,367 (16.7)2,982 (17.1)1,042 (17.5)401 (16.9)189 (16.8)206 (18.2)
 Lower-extremity amputation877 (1.2)109 (1.0)339 (1.1)232 (1.3)106 (1.8)44 (1.9)24 (2.1)23 (2.0)<0.001
 Laser photocoagulation5,335 (7.5)351 (3.2)1,779 (5.5)1,748 (10.0)799 (13.4)354 (14.9)147 (13.1)157 (13.9)<0.001
 Acute metabolic complication 351 (0.5)39 (0.4)93 (0.3)82 (0.5)49 (0.8)37 (1.6)19 (1.7)32 (2.8)<0.001
 Acute infection3,528 (5.0)631 (5.8)1,537 (4.8)822 (4.7)268 (4.5)136 (5.7)65 (5.8)69 (6.1)0.63
 Myocardial infarction6, 656 (9.4)1,018 (9.3)2,894 (9.0)1,654 (9.5)616 (10.3)253 (10.7)116 (10.3)105 (9.3)0.004
 Stroke3,155 (4.4)551 (5.1)1,430 (4.5)748 (4.3)267 (4.5)84 (3.5)43 (3.8)32 (2.8)<0.001
 Congestive heart failure6,632 (9.3)1,068 (9.8)2,862 (8.9)1,625 (9.3)582 (9.8)266 (11.2)100 (8.9)129 (11.4)0.01
 Cancer1,209 (1.7)222 (2.0)552 (1.7)275 (1.6)92 (1.5)35 (1.5)12 (1.1)21 (1.9)0.01
 Chronic obstructive pulmonary  disease7,493 (10.5)1,355 (12.4)3,410 (10.6)1,727 (9.9)590 (9.9)214 (9.0)98 (8.7)99 (8.7)<0.001
 Depression17,015 (23.9)2,743 (25.1)7,593 (23.6)4,111 (23.6)1,451 (24.3)552 (23.3)294 (26.1)271 (23.9)0.48
Glucose-lowering drugs
 Insulin12,470 (17.5)724 (6.6)3,951 (12.3)4,318 (24.7)1,948 (32.7)818 (34.5)369 (32.8)342 (30.2)<0.001
 Sulfonylurea35,953 (50.6)3,435 (31.5)14,417 (44.9)10,806 (61.9)4,068 (68.2)1,646 (69.4)798 (70.9)783 (69.1)<0.001
 Thiazolidinedione6,565 (9.3)407 (3.7)2,453 (7.6)2,141 (12.3)872 (14.6)371 (15.6)174 (15.5)147 (13.0)<0.001
 Metformin26,819 (37.7)1,881 (17.2)10,585 (33.0)8,525 (48.8)3,288 (55.2)1,306 (55.1)622 (55.3)612 (54.0)<0.001
 Acarbose483 (0.7)24 (0.2)142 (0.4)168 (1.0)87 (1.5)38 (1.6)14 (1.2)10 (0.9)<0.001
 Repaglinide90 (0.1)5 (0.1)42 (0.1)22 (0.1)10 (0.2)3 (0.1)3 (0.3)5 (0.4)<0.001
  • Data are n (%).

  • *All complications or conditions were prevalent at baseline.