Table 1

Studies on retinopathy predicting cardiovascular events in type 2 diabetes

ReferenceStudy subjectsFollow-up; study end pointsRelative risk (95% CI)Adjusting factors
Miettinen et al. (4)1,040 Finnish type 2 diabetic subjects7-year follow-up of CAD eventsBackground 1.38 (0.95–2.00); proliferative 2.12 (1.02–4.39)Age, area, sex, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, smoking, hypertension, urinary protein, A1C
Klein et al. (5)The Wisconsin Epidemiologic Study of Diabetic Retinopathy: 1,370 subjects with age of onset of diabetes >30 years16-year follow-up of all-cause, CAD, and stroke mortalityAll-cause mortality: mild nonproliferative 1.34 (1.29–1.71) and proliferative 1.89 (1.43–2.50); CHD mortality: mild nonproliferative 1.21 (0.95–1.53) and proliferative 1.43 (0.94–2.17); stroke mortality: mild nonproliferative 1.30 (0.92–1.85) and proliferative 1.88 (1.03–3.43)Age, sex, duration of diabetes, A1C, systolic blood pressure, prior CVD, smoking (pack-years), diuretic use
Fuller et al. (6)The World Health Organization Multinational Study of Vascular Disease in Diabetes: 1,390 type 2 diabetic subjects12-year follow-up of CVD mortality1.2 (0.8–1.8) in men and 2.7 (1.8–4.1) in womenAge, duration of diabetes, systolic blood pressure, cholesterol, smoking, proteinuria, electrocardiographic abnormalities, glucose
van Hecke et al. (7)The Hoorn Study: 631 nondiabetic and diabetic subjects10.7-year follow-up (median) of all-cause and CVD mortalityAll-cause mortality in diabetic subjects 2.05 (1.23–3.44); CVD mortality in diabetic subjects 2.20 (1.03–4.70)Age and sex
Cusick et al. (8)The Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS): 2,267 type 2 diabetic subjects5-year follow-up of all-cause mortalityModerate nonproliferative 1.27 (0.94–1.72); severe nonproliferative 1.48 (1.03–2.15); mild proliferative 1.28 (0.80–2.06); moderate/high proliferative 2.02 (1.28–3.19)Age, sex, BMI, A1C, total cholesterol, triglycerides, fibrinogen, cigarette smoking, daily insulin use, the use of antihypertensive medications, other baseline diabetes complications
Targher et al. (9)The Valpolicella Heart Study: 248 type 2 diabetic subjects who developed CVD during follow-up and 496 type 2 diabetic control subjects5-year follow-up of CVD eventsNonproliferative 1.8 (1.2–2.3); proliferative 4.1 (2.0–8.9)Age, sex, BMI, smoking history, plasma lipids, A1C, diabetes duration, diabetes treatment
Juutilainen et al. (10)824 Finnish type 2 diabetic subjects18-year follow-up of total, CAD and CVD mortalityCAD: Nonproliferative 1.18 (0.74–1.89) for men and 1.79 (1.13–2.85) for women; proliferative 2.54 (1.07–6.04) for men and 4.98 (2.06–12.06) for womenAge, area of residence, smoking, hypertension, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, duration of diabetes, urinary protein