Table 2

Ethnic-specific incidence rates (per 1,000 person-years) of diabetes for subjects aged ≥30 years, overall and by sociodemographic characteristics and categories of BMI*

Ethnic group (rate [95% CI])
White (n = 57,210)South Asian (n = 1,001)Chinese (n = 866)Black (n = 747)
Overall incidence of diabetes9.5 (9.1–9.9)20.8 (16.1–25.4)9.3 (5.8–13.1)16.3 (11.8–21.6)
Sociodemographic characteristics
 Age at baseline (years)
  30 to <454.8 (4.4–5.3)16.3 (11.7–21.8)4.7 (1.7–7.6)7.2 (3.8–10.8)
  45 to <6512.9 (12.0–13.6)28.1 (18.1–40.4)13.1 (5.9–21.6)30.5 (20.1–42.7)
  ≥6517.5 (16.1–19.0)25.5 (9.8–47.7)36.4 (14.0–68.5)32.7 (8.2–83.5)
 Sex
  Male10.8 (10.1–11.4)24.0 (16.6–31.8)10.3 (5.6–16.1)14.1(8.3–20.7)
  Female8.4 (7.8–8.9)16.8 (10.9–23.2)8.1 (3.5–13.4)18.8 (11.3–26.2)
 Income adequacy
  1 (lowest)12.9 (11.3–14.5)29.4 (14.4–46.9)4.4 (0.0–11.7)33.6 (18.0–54.9)
  2 (lower-mid)11.8 (10.8–12.9)19.5 (12.2–28.4)7.0 (2.8–11.5)6.9 (2.2–13.3)
  3 (mid-higher)9.5 (8.8–10.3)16.4 (9.4–24.8)10.4 (3.9–18.9)21.0 (12.8–31.3)
  4 (highest)7.9 (7.2–8.7)24.4 (14.2–35.6)11.1 (5.1–17.1)9.9 (3.6–17.7)
 Highest level of education in household
  At most secondary school diploma13.6 (12.2–14.9)25.3 (8.3–40.9)19.9 (6.1–36.0)22.3 (8.1–41.8)
  At least some postsecondary8.7 (8.0–9.3)18.5 (13.0–24.5)9.6 (5.2–14.5)14.2 (8.2–21.3)
 Rural or urban dwelling
  Rural9.4 (8.8–10.0)18.8 (11.3–28.2)4.5 (1.3–9.3)17.2 (9.2–26.2)
  Urban9.7 (9.1–10.3)21.5 (16.0–27.1)10.5 (6.0–15.0)15.9 (10.7–21.7)
 Immigrant status
  Nonimmigrant8.9 (8.5–9.4)30.8 (3.4–79.5)8.6 (0.9–21.7)8.1 (0.7–19.4)
  Immigrant (born outside of Canada)11.7 (10.4–13.0)20.5 (15.9–25.1)9.4 (5.8–13.5)17.2 (12.7–22.8)
 Number of years in Canada (among immigrants)
  <104.0 (2.2–6.4)17.5 (11.3–25.5)2.6 (0.7–5.0)14.3 (5.5–26.2)
  10 to <308.9 (6.8–11.0)22.6 (14.8–30.2)10.7 (5.4–16.6)17.4 (10.7–25.3)
  ≥3014.9 (13.2–16.7)23.8 (10.1–41.8)29.9 (8.8–57.4)19.4 (8.5–34.3)
BMI categories (kg/m2)
 WHO-defined BMI categories for the general population
  <18.5, underweight3.3 (1.2–5.6)1.8 (0.0–7.3)0.0 (0.0–0.0)0.0 (0.0–0.0)
  18.5 to <25, normal4.1 (3.7–4.5)12.1 (7.8–16.9)6.8 (3.3–10.6)8.4 (3.6–14.6)
  25 to <30, overweight10.0 (9.3–10.8)27.7 (17.1–38.7)19.5 (9.3–34.2)18.6 (10.6–27.1)
  ≥30, obese25.6 (23.5–27.4)76.6 (49.0–110.3)79.6 (17.6–157.7)38.0 (18.0–61.8)
 WHO-defined BMI categories for Asian populations
  18.5 to <23, increasing but acceptable risk3.1 (2.7–3.6)11.6 (6.0–17.8)3.7 (1.1–6.4)7.3 (1.1–16.9)
  23 to <27.5, increased risk6.9 (6.4–7.6)20.2 (13.1–27.8)16.8 (8.4–25.2)14.1 (8.6–20.2)
  ≥27.5, high risk19.0 (17.9–20.0)44.9 (28.1–63.9)30.9 (10.9–52.6)28.9 (17.0–42.9)
  • Data were derived from the Ontario components of Statistics Canada’s NPHS and CCHS, 1996–2005.

  • *The study cohort included 57,210 white, 1,001 South Asian, 866 Chinese, and 747 black participants living in Ontario. All estimates were weighted by the survey sample weight to allow for estimates to be generalizable to the overall Ontario population.

  • †Bootstrap methods were used to derive 95% CIs.

  • ‡BMI categories were those defined by the WHO expert panel convened in 2002 (7).