Table 3

Cox proportional HRs for incident diabetes, by ethnicity and sex*

WhiteSouth AsianChineseBlack
HRHR (95% CI)PHR (95% CI)PHR (95% CI)P
Overalln = 57,210n = 1,001n = 866n = 747
 Main models
  Unadjusted1 (reference)2.23 (1.72–2.78)<0.0010.99 (0.62–1.41)0.971.72 (1.27–2.27)<0.001
  Age and sex1 (reference)2.63 (1.99–3.27)<0.0011.15 (0.73–1.68)0.482.04 (1.50–2.68)<0.001
  Survey year, income adequacy, urban vs. rural dwelling1 (reference)2.46 (1.88–3.08)<0.0011.10 (0.68–1.60)0.651.93 (1.43–2.50)<0.001
  BMI1 (reference)3.40 (2.58–4.24)<0.0011.87 (1.16–2.60)0.0021.99 (1.39–2.71)<0.001
  Inadequate physical activity, inadequate fruit and vegetable consumption, psychosocial stress, alcohol consumption1 (reference)3.56 (2.51–4.76)<0.0012.19 (1.26–3.18)<0.0011.96 (1.26–2.85)0.002
 Sensitivity analyses
  Highest level of education in household1 (reference)3.42 (2.39–4.61)<0.0012.34 (1.33–3.39)<0.0011.93 (1.22–2.87)0.004
  Age-sex and age-BMI interactions1 (reference)3.59 (2.55–4.80)<0.0012.15 (1.22–3.14)0.0011.98 (1.28–2.90)0.001
  Number of years in Canada1 (reference)3.86 (2.46–5.57)<0.0012.47 (1.23–3.89)0.0012.06 (1.27–3.23)0.003
  Individual income, fruit and vegetable consumption, alcohol consumption as continuous variables1 (reference)3.52 (2.50–4.72)<0.0012.29 (1.30–3.23)<0.0012.03 (1.31–2.99)<0.001
Male subjectsn = 26,395n = 546n = 420n = 375
 Main models
  Unadjusted1 (reference)2.28 (1.58–3.03)<0.0010.98 (0.52–1.53)0.941.31 (0.76–1.96)0.24
  Age1 (reference)2.73 (1.83–3.69)<0.0011.11 (0.61–1.78)0.691.53 (0.89–2.23)0.06
  Survey year, income adequacy, urban vs. rural dwelling1 (reference)2.60 (1.76–3.49)<0.0011.06 (0.60–1.71)0.841.51 (0.88–2.23)0.08
  BMI1 (reference)3.78 (2.59–5.08)<0.0011.76 (0.97–2.83)0.041.65 (0.87–2.56)0.06
  Inadequate physical activity, inadequate fruit and vegetable consumption, psychosocial stress, alcohol consumption1 (reference)4.02 (2.46–5.98)<0.0012.05 (1.04–3.51)0.021.51 (0.67–2.59)0.23
 Sensitivity analyses
  Highest level of education in household1 (reference)3.71 (2.25–5.48)<0.0012.20 (1.12–3.70)0.011.31 (0.58–2.42)0.46
  Age-sex and age-BMI interactions1 (reference)4.05 (2.53–6.11)<0.0011.99 (1.00–3.47)0.031.51 (0.67–2.59)0.23
  Number of years in Canada1 (reference)4.29 (2.38–7.37)<0.0012.37 (1.10–4.49)0.021.36 (0.50–2.56)0.45
  Individual income, fruit and vegetable consumption, alcohol consumption as continuous variables1 (reference)3.90 (2.39–5.93)<0.0012.10 (1.06–3.53)0.021.53 (0.68–2.65)0.22
Female subjectsn = 30,815n = 455n = 446n = 372
 Main models
  Unadjusted1 (reference)2.04 (1.32–2.85)<0.0010.99 (0.43–1.63)0.982.26 (1.39–3.24)<0.001
  Age1 (reference)2.48 (1.62–3.42)<0.0011.19 (0.53–1.89)0.582.75 (1.71–3.94)<0.001
  Survey year, income adequacy, urban vs. rural dwelling1 (reference)2.30 (1.51–3.18)<0.0011.14 (0.49–1.81)0.692.51 (1.56–3.58)<0.001
  BMI1 (reference)3.01 (1.99–4.20)<0.0012.00 (0.88–3.18)0.032.40 (1.47–3.52)<0.001
  Inadequate physical activity, inadequate fruit and vegetable consumption, psychosocial stress, alcohol consumption1 (reference)2.99 (1.68–4.60)<0.0012.30 (0.91–4.21)0.032.45 (1.26–4.09)0.004
 Sensitivity analyses
  Highest level of education in household1 (reference)3.08 (1.74–4.69)<0.0012.39 (0.97–4.24)0.022.55 (1.31–4.30)0.003
  Age-sex and age-BMI interactions1 (reference)3.02 (1.72–4.69)<0.0012.32 (0.93–4.26)0.022.50 (1.28–4.20)0.004
  Number of years in Canada1 (reference)3.39 (1.69–5.63)<0.0012.33 (0.79–4.80)0.072.80 (1.39–5.15)0.003
  Individual income, fruit and vegetable consumption, alcohol consumption as continuous variables1 (reference)3.00 (1.69–4.64)<0.0012.44 (0.99–4.30)0.022.61 (1.38–4.41)0.002
  • Data were derived from the Ontario components of Statistics Canada’s NPHS and CCHS, 1996–2005.

  • *The study cohort included 57,210 white, 1,001 South Asian, 866 Chinese, and 747 black participants living in Ontario. All estimates were weighted by the survey sample weight to allow for estimates to be generalizable to the overall Ontario population.

  • †Bootstrap methods were used to derive 95% CIs and P values.

  • ‡Definitions: income adequacy, a Statistics Canada measure of socioeconomic status based on annual household income and the number of people in the household; inadequate physical activity, ≤15 min/day; inadequate fruit and vegetable intake, less than three times per day; psychosocial stress, individual feeling “extremely” or “quite a bit” versus “not at all,” “not very,” or “a bit” stressed on most days; nonregular alcohol consumption, less than three drinks per week.