Table 1

Clinical characteristics of type 1 diabetic patients

VariableNormal AERMicroalbuminuriaMacroalbuminuria
N (male/female)587 (257/330)144 (65/79)173 (110/63)*
Age (years)44 (36–53)46 (37–55)48 (40–56)
Age at onset (years)17 (10–25)11 (6–19)*11 (7–16)*
Duration of diabetes (years)28 ± 1233 ± 11*35 ± 9*
HbA1c (%)7.7 ± 1.37.8 ± 1.87.8 ± 2.0
BMI (kg/m2)25.6 ± 4.226.4 ± 4.227.0 ± 4.9*
Blood pressure (mmHg)
 Systolic136 ± 17141 ± 19146 ± 18*
 Diastolic78 ± 978 ± 1080 ± 11
Cholesterol (mmol/L)4.7 ± 0.84.9 ± 0.84.8 ± 1.1
Triglycerides (mmol/L)0.90 (0.69–1.21)0.95 (0.72–1.51)1.35 (0.93–2.03)*
HDL cholesterol (mmol/L)
 Male1.5 ± 0.41.4 ± 0.41.3 ± 0.4
 Female1.7 ± 0.41.8 ± 0.51.5 ± 0.4*
apoA1 (mg/dL)146 ± 32152 ± 34143 ± 33
apoB (mg/dL)75 ± 1978 ± 1885 ± 25*
LPS (EU/mL)57 (50–69)56 (47–72)67 (52–96)*
LPS/HDL ratio37 (29–50)35 (27–52)50 (34–77)*
CRP (mg/L)1.0 (0.3–2.5)1.0 (0.5–2.5)1.1 (0.6–2.9)
eGFR (mL/min/1.73 m2)102 (90–111)96 (81–108)*57 (35–84)*
Medication (%)
 Lipid-lowering2235*56*
 Antihypertensive3179*98*
Smoking (%)172026*
Retinopathy (%)2055*78*
Coronary heart disease (%)6915*
  • Continuous data are presented as the median (interquartile range) or as mean ± SD.

  • All variables are compared with normoalbuminuric patients:

  • *P ≤ 0.001,

  • P ≤ 0.05.