Table 2

Association between metabolic dysregulation measures and markers of brain aging

VariableModelHOMA-IR (mmol/L × µU/mL)PFasting insulin (μU/mL)PHbA1c (%)PDiabetesP
TCBVA−0.07 ± 0.02<0.001−0.02 ± 0.01<0.001−0.31 ± 0.07<0.001−1.24 ± 0.20<0.001
B−0.06 ± 0.02<0.001−0.02 ± 0.01<0.001−0.27 ± 0.07<0.001−1.08 ± 0.20<0.001
C−0.04 ± 0.020.003−0.01 ± 0.010.050−0.23 ± 0.070.002−0.97 ± 0.21<0.001
HVA−0.000 ± 0.0000.428−0.000 ± 0.0000.731−0.001 ± 0.0010.476−0.003 ± 0.0040.380
B−0.000 ± 0.0000.461−0.000 ± 0.0000.746−0.001 ± 0.0010.510−0.003 ± 0.0040.436
C−0.000 ± 0.0000.521−0.000 ± 0.0000.891−0.001 ± 0.0010.423−0.003 ± 0.0040.522
Verbal memoryA0.007 ± 0.0060.2870.001 ± 0.0020.7810.02 ± 0.020.4060.15 ± 0.070.031
B0.007 ± 0.0060.2950.001 ± 0.0020.7440.02 ± 0.020.5150.14 ± 0.070.039
C0.005 ± 0.0070.503−0.000 ± 0.0020.8080.02 ± 0.020.4950.14 ± 0.070.059
Visual memoryA−0.02 ± 0.010.003−0.005 ± 0.0020.005−0.04 ± 0.020.114−0.10 ± 0.070.169
B−0.02 ± 0.010.004−0.005 ± 0.0020.007−0.03 ± 0.020.274−0.08 ± 0.070.280
C−0.02 ± 0.010.003−0.005 ± 0.0020.006−0.02 ± 0.020.385−0.08 ± 0.070.262
Executive functionA−0.03 ± 0.01<0.001−0.007 ± 0.002<0.001−0.07 ± 0.020.002−0.15 ± 0.070.031
B−0.03 ± 0.01<0.001−0.007 ± 0.002<0.001−0.06 ± 0.020.009−0.13 ± 0.070.064
C−0.03 ± 0.01<0.001−0.007 ± 0.002<0.001−0.06 ± 0.020.022−0.15 ± 0.070.038
  • Model A: Adjusted for age, sex, education. Model B: Adjusted for age, sex, education, systolic blood pressure, smoking, history of cardiovascular disease. Model C: Adjusted for age, sex, education, systolic blood pressure, smoking, history of cardiovascular disease, apoE-ε4 genotype, serum homocysteine levels, CRP, IL-6. Statistically significant relationships are in boldface.