Table 2

Characteristics of patients before interferon therapy and at type 1 diabetes onset

Before interferon therapyAt type 1 diabetes onsetP
n9191
BMI (kg/m2)24.1 ± 3.520.8 ± 2.7<0.0001
Fasting plasma glucose (mg/dL)104.3 ± 19.7360.7 ± 130.1<0.0001
Serum HCV RNA (positive/negative)65/126/38<0.0001
Aspartate transaminase (IU/L)59.1 ± 32.236.2 ± 24.4<0.0001
Alanine transaminase (IU/L)71.7 ± 43.740.6 ± 35.6<0.0001
Hemoglobin (g/dL)14.4 ± 1.312.9 ± 1.8<0.0001
Platelets (×104/μL)17.2 ± 7.312.8 ± 4.7<0.0001
HbA1c (%)*6.5 ± 1.510.5 ± 2.5<0.0001
Glycoalbumin (%)N.D.38.4 ± 13.1
Urine ketone body (positive/negative)0/2143/22<0.0001
Plasma ketone body (μmol/L)N.D.3,166.9 ± 2,751.5
Urinary C-peptide (μg/day)N.D.28.8 ± 28.8
Fasting serum C-peptide (ng/mL)N.D.1.0 ± 1.7
Stimulated serum C-peptide (ng/mL)N.D.1.4 ± 1.8
Anti-islet autoantibodies (positive/negative)N.D.86/5
GADAb (positive/negative)N.D.79/6
GADAb (units/mL)N.D.14,103.9 ± 32,213.5
IA-2Ab (positive/negative)N.D.7/24
ICA (positive/negative)N.D.9/7
IAA (positive/negative)N.D.2/4
Dose of daily insulin (units/kg/day)N.D.0.54 ± 0.30
  • Data are means ± SD or n positive/n negative. Data for anti-islet autoantibodies are positive if patients have at least one of GADAb, ICA, IA-2Ab, or IAA. HbA1c (%) was estimated as a National Glycohemoglobin Standardization Program (NGSP) equivalent value (%) calculated by the formula HbA1c (%) = HbA1c (Japan Diabetes Society [JDS]) (%) + 0.4%, considering the relational expression of HbA1c (JDS) (%) measured by the previous Japanese standard substance and measurement methods and HbA1c (NGSP). N.D., not determined.

  • *Fourteen patients with type 2 diabetes who had been diagnosed before the initiation of interferon therapy are included.